"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Impact of Spanish on the Lexicon and Grammar of the Indigenous Languages of Austronesia and the Americas
Empirical Approaches to Language Typology [EALT] 39
Literally hundreds of languages world-wide have experienced direct or
indirect Hispanisation during the heyday of the Spanish colonial empire.
The number of languages which continue to borrow from Spanish on a daily
basis is considerable especially in Latin America. This volume gives the
reader a better idea of the range of contact constellations in which
Spanish functions as the donor language. Moreover, the contributions to
this collection of articles demonstrate that it is not only possible to
compare the contact-induced processes in the (Hispanised) languages of
Austronesia and the Americas. It is emphasized that one can draw
far-reaching conclusions from the presented borrowing facts for the theory
of language contact in general.
The volume is divided into two sections according to geographical
principles: section I is devoted to contacts of Spanish in Latin America.
Two contributions look at the Hispanisation of varieties of Nahuatl
(Classical Nahuatl studied by Anne Jensen and modern varieties studied by
José Antonio Flores Farfán). Martina Schrader-Kniffki discusses
Spanish-Zapotec contacts and their relations to language mixing and purism.
Luciano Giannelli and Raoul Zamponi address the issue of Hispanisms in
Kuna, a language from Panama. For South America, Jorge Gómez-Rendón
discusses whether or not there are constraints on lexical borrowing from
Spanish into Imbabura Quichua. Suzanne Dikker studies the intertwined
language Media Lengua in her attempt at redefining the notion of
relexification. Section II focuses on the impact of Spanish on the
languages of Austronesia and South-East Asia. Steven Roger Fischer shows
that the heavy Hispanisation of Rapanui is currently being reverted. Steve
Pagel compares Hispanisation processes and their results in the Mariana
Islands and on Rapa Nui. The second comparative study is by Patrick O.
Steinkrüger who reviews a variety of Philippinian languages and their
degrees of Hispanisation. The attitudes of native speakers of Chamorro as
to Hispanisms is the topic of the study by Rosa Salas Palomo and Thomas Stolz.
The volume is especially interesting for students of language contact. But
also scholars with a background in Romance linguistics or Hispanic
philology will find the assembled articles very useful, as well as
Austronesianists and Amerindianists.