Note: This is the paperback edition of a previously announced title.
Yogad is a Philippine language spoken in Echague and several nearby towns
in Isabela Province, which is located in the Cagayan Valley in central
eastern Luzon. Ethnologue, citing a 1975 census, estimates the number of
speakers at 14,000. The variety of Yogad represented in the dictionary is
that of a male speaker (the second author) in his mid-sixties, who is a
native of Echague. Although Yogad is his first language, he is also fluent
in Ilokano, Tagalog, and English; and he has some knowledge of Ibanag.
The information which we have chosen to include in the dictionary and its
organization are a result of the experience in writing a grammar of Yogad
(Davis, Baker, Spitz & Baek 1998) with Angel Mesa. The user of this
dictionary is referred to that work (The Grammar of Yogad: A functional
explanation), which should be used in conjunction with the present
dictionary in order to gain the best understanding of Yogad. The grammar
and dictionary offer complementary perspectives of the language, and
together they provide the most complete view.
In the Yogad-English portion of the dictionary, each entry of an item will
ideally contain several pieces of information with respect to how that item
interacts with certain contexts. First, following its gloss(es) and other
information, we note how the lexical item behaves with the determiners of
the language, usually yu/nu or tu (Cf. Davis, Baker, Spitz & Baek. 1998,
Chapter 2, section 4). Here, we discover whether the item will be more
'noun'-like or more 'verb'-like. Generally, Yogad lexical resources
function with indifference to the syntactic positions in which we expect
'nouns' and 'verbs' to appear. For example, the language may be described
as VSO, but any lexical item can fill the 'V' position and accept the
'verbal' affixes. Conversely, any lexical item which can appear in the 'V'
position can also occur in the 'S' or 'O' position with a determiner and
appear to be a 'noun'. Rather than mark entries as 'n' or 'v', we let the
sense of the root in the context of determiners provide the relevant
Lexical items can sometimes appear in the 'V' position without accompanying
affixes, and some must. Those possibilities are noted next in each entry.
Not all lexical items work in this way, and where they do not, we mark that
fact with an asterisk. Knowing the ways in which a lexical item cannot be
used is as important for understanding the lexical resources of the
language as is knowing how they can be used. Throughout, we follow the
practice of including and marking unacceptable or meaningless combinations.
Next, there will appear a sequence of examples which fix the possibilities
of occurrence with the 'verbal' affixes of Yogad; and this includes some
eighteen affixal combinations. The first four (pairs of) affixes focus on
the 'S', and the remaining ones focus on the 'O'. At least one affix (ma-)
may select either the 'S' or the 'O' for focus. Again, the reader is
referred to Davis, Baker, Spitz & Baek (1998) for detailed discussion of
the meaning of these affixes.
Following the detailing of affixal combinations, examples will be provided
to illustrate the possibilities of reduplication. There are several such
patterns in Yogad. And finally, where useful, additional examples of usage
will close out an entry. At any point in an entry, there may occur material
between double quotation marks. These are verbatim comments by the speaker,
which may help elucidate the sense of an expression and also how it differs
from closely related ones.
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