"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The L1 in L2 Learning – Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices
Opinions concerning the use of the L1 in L2 learning and teaching have
differed markedly over the years. For much of the past century, it has
generally been asserted by theorists and methodologists that the L1 has a
largely negative influence on L2 learning and that its use should therefore
be kept to an absolute minimum in L2 teaching. However, in recent years
this position has been called into question, leading to the beginnings of a
reassessment of previous orthodoxies.
This book sets out to examine this controversial issue of the L1 in L2
teaching and learning from the perspective of the practitioner rather than
the theorist. Focusing on the cases of four L2 teachers, all of whom share
the same L1 as their students, this book investigates in depth the
attitudes these four teachers hold towards the L1 in their L2 teaching, the
extent to which their attitudes are reflected in their L1-related
behaviours in class, and the factors they perceive as influences on their
beliefs and behaviours. The book contributes to our understanding of
teachers’ perceptions of the L1 as a medium of instruction in L2 teaching
and of their L1-related practices when faced with day-to-day classroom
realities. It examines the potential implications of these enhanced
understandings for teacher education.