"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Proper Nouns and Pronouns
The production of referential expressions in narrative discourse
In consecutive references to narrative characters, narrators usually
alternate between the use of proper nouns and pronouns. This study aims to
provide a comprehensive and cognitively plausible account of reference
maintenance in online narrative discourse production.
The corpus research reported in this study offers an analysis of the
grammatical and discourse factors affecting referential choice in narrative
discourse production. The analysis is based on a large corpus of written
narratives, elicited through visual stimuli (a comic). The results of the
quantitative analyses indicate that in the maintenance of reference to
narrative characters, the choice between proper nouns and pronouns is
guided by two mechanisms: an independent distance-based alternation of
proper nouns and pronouns, and the repetition of proper nouns after
discourse-structural boundaries. These linear and hierarchical factors can
be assumed to
exert their influence through the fluctuation of (assumed) referent
salience. The relation between context factors and referential form stems
from the salience characteristics inherent in the nominal categories proper
noun and pronoun, which accounts for reference maintenance at both the
clause and the discourse level.
Proper Nouns and Pronouns should be of interest to researchers working in
the fields of text linguistics, cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics.