"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Restructuring and Infinitival Complements in Dutch
This dissertation deals with infinitival constructions in standard Dutch.
There are three types: some infinitivals are obligatorily transparent,
others are (apparently) optionally transparent, and still others are
opaque. An in depth study of the fine structure of the obligatorily and
optionally transparent complements shows that the possibility of
transparency does not correlate with the presence of functional heads. In
the class of obligatorily transparent complements, we find complements as
small as VP, but also complements as large as TP. As both obligatorily
transparent VPs and TPs show the same range of transparency phenomena, the
possibility of transparency phenomena does not depend on the presence of
particular functional heads. The same holds for the optionally transparent
complements: within this class, the fine structure of the complement may
range from vP to TP, but regardless of the fine structure, the same
transparency effects arise.
Transparency is instead ascribed to the absence of phase heads between the
complement and the matrix clause. Phase heads being locality boundaries, a
relation between the matrix and the complement cannot cross a phase head.
This explains the observation that opaque infinitivals are CPs. The status
of a head as a phase is argued to be variable. It is proposed that standard
Dutch v is a phase head only if it checks accusative case. With this
assumption, the observation that the various transparency phenomena
correlate with the possibility of long object raising follows