This dictionary consists of approximately 5-6,000 basic vocabulary itens of=
Tuvan, a Turkic language of south central Siberia.
The lexicon of Tuvan is charcterized by a larger number of Mongolianloans t= han in other Turkic languages of southern Siberia.
Modern Tuvan has also borrowed extensively from Russian, though less than n= eighboring Altai-Sa yan Turkic languages. There are also a number of loans in Tuvan from Chinese, Tibetan, and even Sanskri= t, though usually through a Mongolian intermediary; these words are predominantly in the religious or political s= pheres, or refer to cultural items diffused from those areas.
Finally there are a small number of words in Tuvan from other, now extinct = (and in part assimilated to Tuvan linguistically), languages belonging to the Yeniseian and Samoyed families. Thus, the lexico= n of Tuvan reflects the diverse and complex history of socio-cultural contacts of the Tuvan people.
Tuvan (aka Tuvan/Tuvinian) is spoken by 150-200,000 people in the Republic = of Tuva in south centra Siberia. Tuvan (along with the closely related Tofalar) stand out among the Turkic languages in s= everal ways.=20
Tuvan has three sets of phonemic vowels: plain, long, and creaky voice. Wor= d-initially obstruents exhibit a contrast between unaspirated/aspirated or voiced/voiceless, depending on the speaker. There = is also a phonemically marginal series of long nasalized vowels. Tuvan has only one inflectional series for verbs, preferi= ng enclitic pronominals in most forms (in main clauses).=20
Large numbers of Mongolisms and Mongolian derivational affixes are found, t= he latter often appearing with Turkic roots.
Russian loans are also numerous, and in the speech of certain younger resid= ents of Kyzyl, contact-induced restructuring can be observed.
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