"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Hybrid Neural Systems, Connectionism, Hybrid Symbolic Neural Architectures, Cognitive Neuroscience, Machine Learning, Language Processing
The aim of this book is to present a broad spectrum of current research in hybrid neural systems, and advance the state of the art in neural networks and artificial intelligence. Hybrid neural systems are computational systems which are based mainly on artificial neural networks but which also allow a symbolic interpretation or interaction with symbolic components. This book focuses on the following issues related to different types of representation: How does neural representation contribute to the success of hybrid systems? How does symbolic representation supplement neural representation? How can these types of representation be combined? How can we utilize their interaction and synergy? How can we develop neural and hybrid systems for new domains? What are the strengths and weaknesses of hybrid neural techniques? Are current principles and methodologies in hybrid neural systems useful? How can they be extended? What will be the impact of hybrid and neural techniques in the future?