"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This dissertation investigates how second language (L2) learners of Dutch
with Moroccan Arabic or Turkish as their native language acquire
finiteness, that is, the form and placement of finite verbs. Results from
production as well as processing tasks show that finiteness is acquired in
stages that are internally consistent and largely independent of learners’
native language. Initially, L2 learners produce non-finite verbs that are
placed in final position (e.g., Het meisje niet lopen ‘The girl not walk’),
and not yet sentences in which a finite verb occurs in raised position
(e.g., Het meisje loopt niet ‘The girl walks not’). The acquisition of
auxiliary verbs constitutes an important step: prior to the acquisition of
auxiliaries, learners mainly produce non-finite verb forms and word order
is determined by semantic principles. After the acquisition of auxiliary
verbs, morphosyntactic principles such as verb-raising and subject-verb
agreement come in. This development from a non-finite to a finite system is
a gradual process, however, in which grammatical knowledge is often applied
for language processing before it is put to active use in production.