"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
When explaining cognition one must explain how representations in the mind,
or symbols, become meaningful by connecting to the external world. This
process of connecting symbols with sensorimotor experiences is known as
symbol grounding. The classical view of symbol grounding is that it is an
individual process: a person or machine interacts with the environment and
associates symbols with external experiences.
This volume contains views from different disciplines – ranging from
psychology to robotics – on how this view can be extended by first
extending symbol grounding to encompass semiotics and by showing how the
classical view exaggerates the importance of written language: grounding
does not necessarily involve written notations, but rather language is an
external cognitive resource that allows us to acquire categories and
concepts. Secondly, as symbol grounding relies on language to acquire and
coordinate the process and language is a dynamical process rooted in both
culture and biology, symbol grounding by extension is also sensitive to
culture, emotion and embodiment.
The contributions to this volume were previously published in
Interaction Studies 8:1 (2007).