"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This is an introduction to Optimality Theory, whose central idea is that
surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between
competing constraints. The book does not limit its empirical scope to
phonological phenomena, but also contains chapters on the learnability of
OT grammars; OT's implications for syntax; and other issues such as
opacity. Exercises accompany chapters 1-7, and there are sections on
further reading. Optimality Theory will be welcomed by any linguist with a
basic knowledge of derivational Generative Phonology.
Preface; 1. Conflicts in grammars; 2. The typology of structural changes;
3. Syllable structure and economy; 4. Metrical structure and parallelism;
5. Correspondence in reduplication; 6. Output-to-output correspondence; 7.
Learning OT grammars; 8. Extensions to syntax; 9. Residual issues;
References; Index of languages; Index of subjects; Index of constraints.