"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Language Change on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland Linguistic and sociolinguistic findings
This book describes the role of social and socio-psychological factors in the
process of dialect levelling. The political history of the Frisian Islands - which
have changed hands between Holland and Friesland in the course of history -
is still visible in its language varieties, as the dialects of Ameland and
Terschelling are so-called mixed dialects: they contain both Dutch and Frisian
elements, where the Dutch comes from the dialect that used to be spoken in
the province of Holland.
In this thesis, we study the present-day development of the mixed dialect
spoken on Ameland. The influence of the surrounding standard languages on
the dialects is measured on different linguistic levels, i.e. phonology and
morphology. By comparing the dialect competence and obtaining data from
three generations of dialect speakers the degrees of language maintenance
and language loss will be assessed. The influence of both the Dutch and
Frisian standard language is taken into account. One of the central questions
is whether horizontal (cross-dialectal) convergence or vertical convergence
(towards the Frisian or Dutch standard) is dominant in the levelling process.
Do the islanders react against the huge numbers of tourists visiting the island
each year? Attitude data will be adduced to focus on the individual language
user. The attitudes towards the dialect and the surrounding standard
languages may influence the process of dialect change.