"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Second language acquisition in early childhood
A longitudinal multiple case study of Turkish-Dutch children
Elma Nap-Kolhoff describes and discusses the results of her PhD-research
on the Dutch language development of seven Turkish-Dutch children. All
children in the study are raised in families of first- and second-generation
immigrants to the Netherlands. At home they initially learn Turkish, but they
are also regularly exposed to Dutch. The children receive most of their Dutch
language input in pre-school playgroups (peuterspeelzalen), daycare centres
(kinderdagverblijven) or in play-contact with Dutch speaking friends.The study
described in this book deals with the Dutch language development of these
children between the age of two and four. For each child, spontaneous
speech data were collected at regular intervals during these two years. In the
literature on childhood bilingualism, learning a second language before the
age of three is often considered a form of first language acquisition. This
assumption is questioned in this book. A comparison is made with
monolingual children learning Dutch as their first language. In addition, the
speech data are compared to Turkish adults learning Dutch as a second
language. The results are analysed within the framework of a usage-based
theory of language acquisition.