"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This dissertation is concerned with the syntactic and semantic status of
negative indefinites in Afrikaans. The problem posed by negative
indefinites is that their interpretation appears to differ across double
negation (DN) and negative concord (NC) languages. With respect to negative
displays features that distinguish it from both typical NC and typical DN
languages. Contrary to most NC languages, and similarly to DN languages,
standard Afrikaans does not allow negative indefinites to co-occur with a NC
interpretation. If multiple negative indefinites do co-occur, the utterance is
given a DN interpretation in standard Afrikaans. However, in colloquial
Afrikaans multiple negative indefinites can co-occur with a NC interpretation.
It is this potential ambiguity between NC and DN interpretations of multiple
negative indefinite combinations on the one hand, and the variation in the
expression of multiple indefinites in the scope of negation on the other hand,
that forms the central focus of the dissertation. The analysis of negative
indefinites in Afrikaans proposed in this dissertation is formulated in the
framework of bidirectional Optimality Theory (OT) and is based on both
theoretical observations and empirical data. This dissertation is of
interest to researchers working on negation in general and to those
interested in Afrikaans, and negation in Afrikaans.