Since early in its development the field of neurology has been concerned with the mechanisms which mediate language. Although the brain presents a number of unique challenges to investigators, considerable progress has been made in neurophysiological techniques and imaging technology. The present paper begins with a discussion of some of the properties of the brain which render its investigation difficult, followed by an overview of several of the methods which are employed to study brain structure and function. We then proceed to a specific discussion of the neuroanatomical structures which are believed to mediate language processing and the variety of disorders that result from lesions to these structures. After a brief note concerning how these arguments can be evaluated we shall comment on how information and evidence from neurology can contribute to the study of linguistics. The final section presents a summary and draws conclusions.