"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
In "The Syntax of Adjectives", Guglielmo Cinque offers cross-linguistic
evidence that adjectives have two sources. Arguing against the standard
view, and reconsidering his own earlier analysis, Cinque proposes that
adjectives enter the nominal phase either as "adverbial" modifiers to the
noun or as predicates of reduced relative clauses. Some of his evidence
comes from a systematic comparison between Romance and Germanic languages.
These two language families differ with respect to the canonical position
taken by adjectives, which is prenominal in Germanic and both pre- and
postnominal in Romance. Cinque shows that a simple N(oun)-raising analysis
encounters a number of problems, the primary one of which is its inability
to express a fundamental generalization governing the interpretation of
pre- and postnominal adjectives in the two language families. Cinque argues
that N-raising as such should be abandoned in favor of XP-raising--a
conclusion also supported by evidence from other language families.
After developing this framework for analyzing the syntax of adjectives,
Cinque applies it to the syntax of English and Italian adjectives. An
appendix offers a brief discussion of other languages that appear to
distinguish overtly between the two sources of adjectives.