"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
1. Phonology (S. Bird) 2. Morphology (H. Trost) 3. Lexicography (P. Hanks) 4. Syntax (R. Kaplan) 5. Semantics (S. Lappin) 6. Discourse (A. Ramsey) 7. Pragmatics and Dialogue (G.Leech and M.Weisser) 8. Formal grammars and languages (C. Martin-Vide) 9. Complexity (B. Carpenter)
Part II. Processes, methods and resources
10. Text segmentation (A. Mikheev) 11. POS tagging (A.Voutilainen) 12. Parsing (J. Carroll) 13. Word-sense disambiguation (M. Stevenson and Y.Wilks) 14. Anaphora resolution (R. Mitkov) 15. Natural Language Generation (J.Bateman and M. Zock) 16. Speech recognition (L. Lamel and J.L. Gauvain) 17. Text-to-speech synthesis (T. Dutoit and Y. Stylianou) 18. Finite-state technology (L. Karttunen) 19. Statistical methods (C. Samuelsson) 20. Machine Learning (R. Mooney) 21. Lexical knowledge acquisition (Y. Matsumoto) 22. Evaluation (L. Hirschman and I. Mani) 23. Sublanguages and Controlled Languages (R. Kittredge) 24. Corpora (T. McEnery) 25. Ontologies (P.Vossen) 26. Tree adjoining grammars (A. Joshi)
Part III. Applications
27. Machine translation: general overview (J. Hutchins) 28. Machine translation: latest developments (H. Somers) 29. Information retrieval (E.Tzoukermann, J. Klavans and T. Strzalkowski) 30. Information extraction (R. Grishman) 31. uestion answering (S. Harabagiu and D. Moldovan) 32. Text summarisation (E. Hovy) 33. Term extraction and automatic indexing (C. Jacquemin and D. Bourigault) 34. Text data mining (M. Hearst) 35. Natural language interaction (I. Androutsopoulos and M. Aretoulaki) 36. Natural language in multimodal and multimedia systems (E. Andre) 37. NLP in computer-aided language learning (J. Nerbonne) 38. Multilingual on-line NLP (G. Grefenstette and F. Segond)
Notes on contributors Glossary Index of authors Subject index