"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Translation norms are understood as internalised behavioural constraints which embody the values shared by a community. In the two main contributions it is argued that all decision in the translation process are primarily governed by norms. The explanatory power of a norm-based theory of translation is then critically reflected upon in the debates and the responses.
1. The Concept of Norms in Translation Studies Christina Schaffner
2. A Handful of Paragraphs on 'Translation' and 'Norms' Gideon Toury (Tel Aviv University)
THE FIRST DEBATE
3. Translation and Normativity Theo Hermans (University College, London)
THE SECOND DEBATE
RESPONSES TO GIDEON TOURY AND THEO HERMANS
4. Description, Explanation, Prediction Andrew Chesterman (University of Helsinki)
5. Norms in Research on Conference Interpreting Daniel Gile (Universite Lumiere)
6. Okay, so how are Translation Norms Negotiated? Anthony Pym (Universitat Rovira i Virgili)
7. Looking Through Translation Douglas Robinson (University of Mississippi)
8. The Trouble with the Strictly Socio-Historical Description of Norms Sergio Viaggio (United Nations, Vienna International Centre)
9. Some of us are Finally Talking to Each Other. Would it Mark the Beginning of a True Dialogue? Gideon Toury
10. Some Concluding Comments on the Debates and the Responses Theo Hermans