Meaning, the complex phenomenon of individuation and the definition of
identity are the core theme of this work. Grounded on a theoretical
framework that gives particular emphasis to the semiotic process common to
all forms of cognition, human cognition is conceived here as specific of
organisms that, in the course of their interactions, produce symbolic
forms, defining the specific physical, social and cultural environments in
which they evolve.
Individuation, inherent to that semiotic process, is complex and
double-sided. It involves, on one hand, the definition of semantic
identities and their acknowledgment as world objects – naming; on the other
hand, it comprehends the specific lexical and morphosyntactic strategies
different languages have found to designate particular entities- referring.
The definition of world objects and its symbolic translation presents
variations from language to language. In the second part, we define what we
have called a “structure-motivated ontology” to represent how this symbolic
translation is accomplished in English and European Portuguese. Plus, we
try to show how the nature of this symbolic translation affects structural
realisation, namely the individuation of reference and the construal of
“one-off referring” expressions.