Contributors: Aslı Göksel, Balkız Öztürk, Betül Emgin, Eser Taylan, İsmail
Avcı Bucak’lişi, Markus A. Pöchtrager, Neşe Kaya, Ömer Demirok, Özge
Sarıgül, Ümit Atlamaz
This grammar presents the essential features of the Pazar dialect of Laz,
also known as Atinan. Laz is a Caucasian language mainly spoken in Turkey.
It belongs to the subgroup called the South-Caucasian branch, along with
Megrelian, Georgian and Svan. Laz is an endangered language. The number
of speakers is estimated to range between 50,000 and 500,000.
Most of the data for this grammatical sketch were collected from a native
speaker of Pazar Laz, during a course on linguistic field methods at Boğaziçi
University in Spring 2010, taught by Balkız Öztürk and Markus A.
Pöchtrager. The grammar was jointly written by the students and the faculty
members who attended this course. Additional material comes from three
different research projects conducted by the faculty members (Aslı Göksel,
Balkız Öztürk and Markus A. Pöchtrager) funded by the Boğaziçi University
Scientific Research Fund. The present text discusses the phonology,
morphology and syntax of Pazar Laz in great detail, supported by roughly 600
examples, and closes with a fully glossed text which illustrates many of the
topics covered in the main text. It will be of interest to a wide variety of
scholars, from experts on Caucasian languages to theoretical linguists.
Abbreviations and Symbols
0. Introductory Remarks
1. Phonology (1.1. Vowels, 1.2. Consonants, 1.2.1 Basic system, 1.2.2
Phonotactics, 1.3 Minimal Word, 1.4 Suprasegmentals: Stress, 1.5. Loans,
2. Morphology (2.1 Word Classes, 2.2 The Morphology of Substantives, 2.2.1
Nouns, 188.8.131.52 Number, 184.108.40.206 Gender/Class, 220.127.116.11
Definiteness/Referentiality, 18.104.22.168 Case, 22.214.171.124 Possession, 2.2.2
Pronouns, 126.96.36.199 Personal Pronouns, 188.8.131.52 Possessive Pronouns, 184.108.40.206
Demonstratives, 220.127.116.11 Reflexives, 18.104.22.168 Interrogative Pronouns, 22.214.171.124
Indefinite Pronouns, 126.96.36.199 Quantifiers, 2.2.3 Numerals, 2.2.4 Adjectives,
188.8.131.52 Comparatives and Superlatives, 2.2.5 Adverbs, 2.2.6 Derived
Substantives, 184.108.40.206 Compounds, 2.3 The Verb, 2.3.1 Person Marking,
2.3.2 Valency Operations and Pre-Root Vowels (Version Vowels), 2.3.3
Tense-Aspect-Modality Paradigms in Pazar Laz, 2.3.4 Mood and Modality in
Laz, 2.3.5 Negation, 2.3.6 Thematic Suffixes, 2.3.6 Affirmative Preverbs,
2.3.7 Spatial Prefixes, 2.3.8 Verb classes, 2.3.9 Suppletive Verbs, 2.4
Prepositions AND Postpositions).
3. Syntax (3.1 Non-Verbal Sentences, 3.2 Questions, 3.2.1 Polar
Questions, 3.2.2 Question Tag, 3.2.3 Wh-Questions, 3.3 Complex
Sentences, 3.3.1 Coordination, 3.3.2 Complement Clauses, 3.3.3 Relative
Clauses, 3.3.4 Adverbial Clauses, 3.4 Word Order, Sentential Stress and
Intonation, 3.4.1 Canonial word order (presentational focus), 3.4.2 The elision
of subjects and objects, 3.4.3 Word order variation and contrastive focus,
3.4.4 Topics, 3.4.5 Negative sentences, 3.4.6 Polar Questions, 3.4.7 Wh-
questions, 3.4.8 Rhetorical questions, 3.4.9 Echo questions, 3.4.10
Imperative constructions, 3.4.11 Marking an item for prominence).
4. Sample Text: K’oncolozi do Xorzha.