"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The purpose of this research is to analyse the pragmatic development of
language groups at different proficiency levels and to investigate the
relationship between interlanguage pragmatics and grammatical competence.
For this study, 36 native Spanish speaking EFL learners at different
proficiency levels were asked to respond in English to 24 different situations
that called for the speech acts of request and apology. Results showed three
important aspects. The first finding suggested that basic adult learners
possess a pragmatic knowledge in their L1 that allows them to focus on the
intended meaning and, in most cases, to assemble an utterance that
conveys a pragmatic intention and satisfies the communicative demands of a
social situation. The second finding revealed that there are two essential
conditions to communicate a linguistic action: the knowledge of the relevant
linguistic rules and the knowledge of how to use them appropriately and
effectively in a specific context. The findings further suggested that
advanced learners possess the grammatical knowledge to produce an
illocutionary act, but they need to learn the specific L2 pragmatic conventions
that enable them to know when to use these grammatical forms and under