"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 235
Why do grammars change? The cycle of negation proposed by Jespersen is
crucially linked to the status of items and phrases. The definition of criteria
establishing when a polarity item becomes a negative element, and the
identification of the role of phrases for the evolution of negation are the two
objectives pursued by the contributions to this volume.
The contributions look at the emergence of negative items, and their relation
within a given sentence, with particular reference to English and French. The
comparative perspective supports the documentation of the fine-grained
steps that shed light on the factors that (i) determine change and those that
(ii) accompany actuation, which are considered through a dialogue between
functionalist and formalist approaches. By looking at the place of negation in
the architecture of the sentence, they take up the debate as to the relevance
of phrasal projections and consider the role of features. Focusing on the
make-up of individual items makes it possible to re-conceptualise the
Jespersen cycle as the apparent result of the documented evolution patterns
of individual (series of) items. This novel perspective is solidly grounded on
an extensive use of the complete, up to date bibliography, and will contribute
to shape future research.