In this study, the rendering of verbal expression in the translation of fictitious
voices in literature is viewed in its entirety on the basis of original German and
Spanish texts. Eight key works, including stories, novels, and plays from the
last fifty years and their translations into other languages, including English,
French, Portuguese, Catalan and Rumanian, have been examined in order to
deduce the means of verbal expression and the chain of variation elements that
evoke and simulate orality in written text.