The Indo-Aryan language family is a branch of the Indo-European phylum, and
includes Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Kashmiri and Gujarati. First published in
1875, this three-volume comparative grammar of the family was written by the
British civil servant John Beames (1837–1902). From 1866 he spent twelve
years in India, during which he gathered data for what he intended to be the first
comprehensive and accurate Indo-Aryan grammar. Volume 3 focuses on verbs.
It begins by describing the structure of Sanskrit verbs, showing them to be the
origin of the analytical verb constructions found in Indo-Aryan languages. It then
compares Indo-Aryan verbs in terms of tense and transitivity, and explores
passive constructions, conditionals, and imperatives across the seven most
widely spoken languages in the family. Beames' findings remain central to the
work of general linguists, grammarians and language typologists.