"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Emergence of Patterns in Second Language Writing
This book was awarded the Cambridge/Language Teaching Brumfit Award
Drawing upon a convergence of sociocultural theory and linguistic
emergentism, this book presents a longitudinal investigation of the
development of ESL users' written lexicogrammatical patterning (collocations
and colligations). A qualitative methodology ('Lexical Trail Analysis') was
developed in order to capture a dynamic and historical view of the ways in
which the participants combined words in their writing. This involved tracing
single lexemes diachronically through individuals' written corpora. The writers
were interviewed about the histories of particular word combinations. Selected
patterns were later tested using the principles of dynamic testing. The
findings of these combined data types - essays, interviews and tests -
suggest that sociocognitive resources such as memory and attention and the
ability to imitate and adapt linguistic resources are paramount in the massive
task of internalizing the lexicogrammatical patterning of a second language.
The participants were agents of change, seeking assistance and adapting
patterns to suit their changing goals. Their activity is theorized in a model of
language patterning from which implications for second language learning and
teaching are drawn.
Contents: What is lexicogrammatical patterning? - Lexicogrammatical
patterns and second language learning - Emergence theory - Sociocultural
theory - Emergent sociocognition - Methodology - Findings: Patterning,
Assistance and Imitation - A model of language patterning -
Lexicogrammatical pattern emergence and the broader context - Implications
for assisting L2 users.