(Originally published in 1907, Berkeley)
The difficulty of sound-representation may be met in two ways. First, a careful description may be made of the physiological process involved in their production; and, second, the physical characteristics of the sounds themselves may be pointed out. Much of the information necessary concerning the physiological positions and movements may be obtained by directly observing the native speakers. Photographs of the lip positions for the vowels may be easily and quickly made, the tongue positions for most of the consonants may be fixed by means of palatograms, other physiological data may be secured and preserved by means of records on a kymograph according to the methods of Rousselot.
By means of several methods mentioned above an attempt has been made in the following paper to represent the Hupa language as spoken by one individual, Julius Marshall. This has been done in part to obtain a permanent record of theis Athapascan dialect, but more especially for the sake of comparisaon with similar records of related dialects which it is hoped may soon made and presented.
Contents: Classification, Description : Vowels (a,ū, y, w, Consonants, Continuants, Liquid), Nasals (m, n, ñ, n, ñ ), Spirants (w, hw, L, h,x, s, z, c+j, k, t, d), Affricatives (dz, ts, dj, tc). Interspersed with palatograms, photographs and kymopraphs.