"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The two key questions recurring in the literature on loanword studies are: are there any general patterns of loanword adaptation, and if so, which forces drive the process(es) that result in these patterns. This dissertation readdresses these two questions on the basis of a study of loanword phonology in which Mandarin Chinese (MC) is the recipient language (RL) and English the source language (SL). It argues that factors that have not received much attention in the field have to be taken into consideration. They are input types and adapter types. In this dissertation, the roles of the two factors are put to the test. By investigating both loanword corpus data and extensive experimental results, this dissertation presents an analysis of MC loanword phonology that can account for the intricate adaptation patterns attested in a corpus of loanwords borrowed from English into MC. It moreover shows that, depending on input and/or adapter types, loanword adaptation is driven by one or more of the following grammars: the native RL phonological production grammar, the native RL perception grammar, the RL/SL interlanguage phonological production grammar and the RL/SL interlanguage perception grammar. This dissertation will be of interest to all those working on loanword adaptation, Mandarin Chinese phonology, perception and production in second language acquisition and the role of orthography in linguistics