"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The goal of the study is a design of a framework for formalized representation of lexical knowledge, as presented in bilingual dictionaries. Little research has been done on the possibilities of representation and storage of the knowledge acquired in the process of lexicographical analysis and used in the synthesis of dictionary entries. Separation of content from a particular form would allow for re-use of the data for several purposes (including NLP) and for flexible customization of dictionaries for different users.
In the first part, general abstract principles of representation of lexical knowledge are sought. The structure of different dictionary entries is analyzed. Modern technical approaches, which may contribute to an efficient representation of the knowledge, are summarized and a generic abstract model for its representation is defined in terms of objects and relations, together with a proposal for a modular implementation separating the language and dictionary specific components.
The second part demonstrates the use of the model for one particular task: a detailed description of a group of Norwegian nouns in contrast with their Czech equivalents. The nouns are analyzed and a possible representation of the knowledge is presented using the proposed generic model and task specific specifications.