"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Fuzhou variety of Chinese belongs to the Min dialect group, spoken in the capital of Fujian province. It is known for its complex tonal system, 'alternating' vowels, and complicated right dominant tone sandhi. However, previous descriptions have typically been based on auditory impressions of a single speaker. This study presents the first multi-speaker acoustic quantification of the citation tones in Fuzhou. Using two male and two female speakers, mean fundamental frequency and duration data for the citation tones are presented and discussed before the data is normalized across speakers to factor out any between-speaker variation.
The physiology of tone production in Fuzhou is explored through amplitude measurements, indirectly assessing the possible role of vocal cord tension (VCT) and subglottal pressure (Ps) through application of the model presented in Monsen et al. (1978) which extends the Ishizaka-Flanagan two-mass model of vocal-fold vibration. In this study, both VCT and Ps were found to be equally important for tonal production. The tonal phonology of Fuzhou is also examined. First, two major studies are reviewed (Chan 1985 and Yip 1990) before new data for the disyllabic tone sandhi is presented.
Analyses of these data using two different models (Autosegmental Phonology and an approach using traditional Chinese tonal categories) are then explored and compared. All the data from the study are presented in the appendices.