"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Co-construction of Conversation in Group Oral Tests
International language tests increasingly use group oral formats in both high- and low-stakes contexts. But how do test-takers with different characteristics interact in such formats? This book explores how test-takers with different extraversion and proficiency levels co-construct spoken interaction in groups. The impact of the two test-taker characteristics was examined across three task types and with two group sizes. Examination of group performances using both statistical and Conversation Analysis tools offered insights into how group conversation is co-constructed. By enhancing our understanding of the group oral test construct, the findings have useful implications for international language test development and enable appropriate choices regarding task type and group size.