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By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

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Title: Classical Mongolian
Written By: Alice Sárkozi
Series Title: Languages of the World/Materials 429.

The present work is a brief grammar of Classical Mongolian, or, in other words, Written Mongolian that has been the literary language of all the Mongols (Khalkhas, Oirats, Buriats, Kalmüks, etc). It has never been spoken in this form and served as the language of books. Today a little modified version of this written language is used in Inner Mongolia, in the Xinjiang Autonom territory. They write and publish books in the Uighur script, however the pronunciation is far from the written form. Nowadays, the Uighur script is going to be reintroduced in the Mongolian Republic, it is taught in the elementary school side by side with the Cyrillic scrip.
The monuments of Written Mongolian cover large-scale literary forms: inscriptions, Buddhist sûtras, historical chronicles, folklore texts, and poetical and prosaic works of poets and writers of the centuries.
This short grammar may help anybody interested in Mongolian culture to get closer to these literary monuments.
The author is a mongolist making research in the Research Group of Altaic Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. She teaches classical Mongolian language, culture and religion at the Department of Inner Asian Studies of the Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem of Budapest. Hopefully this short summary of Classical Mongolian will help the students of the Inner Asian department to learn the Mongolian language more effectively and will also serve as a contribution to the linguastic work carried out at this department. The work was carried out in the framework of the project of description of grammars of the Altaic languages fulfilled by the members of the above mentioned institutions.
Table of Contents

0. Introduction
0.1. Origin of Classical Mongolian
0.4. Usage of Classical Mongolian
0.5. Sources
0.6. Previous studies
1. Phonology
1.1. Vowels
1.2. Consonants
1.3. Diphthongs
1.4. Phological rules
1.4.1. Vowel harmony
1.4.2. Consonants
1.4.3. Labial attraction
2. Morphology
2.1. Nominal morphology
2.1.1. Noun Number Gender Noun cases Subject possessive marker Possession
2.1.2. Adjectives
2.1.3. Pronoun Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns Demonstratives Reflexives Interrogative pronouns Indefinite pronouns uantitive pronouns
2.1.4. Numerals Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals Collective numerals Frequentative numerals Distributive numerals
2.1.5. Adverbs Spatial adverbs Temporal adverbs Degree adverbs
2.1.6. Postpositions
2.1.7. Nominal negative particles

2.2. Verbal morphology
2.2.1. Verb Tense-aspect-mood system Imperatives Finite tense-aspect forms
2.2.2. Verbal modifiers Verbal nouns Verbal adverbs
2.2.3. Negation
2.2.4. Verbal categorizers Passive Causative Co-operative and reflexive

3. Syntax
4. Sample texts

Publication Year: 2003
Publisher: Lincom GmbH
Review: Not available for review. If you would like to review a book on The LINGUIST List, please login to view the AFR list.
BibTex: View BibTex record
Linguistic Field(s): Language Documentation
Subject Language(s): Mongolian, Classical
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Format: Paperback
ISBN: 3895868590
ISBN-13: N/A
Pages: 60
Prices: 31 EUR