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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more



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What is English? And Why Should We Care?

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To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.


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Title: Nivkh
Written By: Ekaterina J Gruzdeva
Series Title: Languages of the World/Materials 111
Description:

Nivkh

Ekaterina Gruzdeva
Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

Nivkh (otherwise known as Gilyak) is considered genetically isolated, though is traditionally classified as Paleasiberian. Typologically, Nivkh is an agglutinative synthetic nominative language with elements of morphological fusion and some analytical features.
It is the language of a small nationality (4,700 people) presently residing mainly at the lower reaches of the Amur River in the far east on the Asian continent and on Sakhalin Island (Russia). Four dialects of Nivkh are distinguished: Amur, East-Sakhalin, North-Sakhalin and South-Sakhalin. The description is based primarily on the materials of Amur and East-Sakhalin diaelcts of Nivkh, the last not well described yet. The sketch contains five sections, two folklore texts (in both examined dialects of Nivkh) with interlinear translation and an ample bibliography.
The first section describes socio- and geolinguistic data, different hypothesis of Nivkh genesis and principal stages of its studying. The phonology and morphology section deals with the phoneme inventory, prosody, syllable structure and morphological alternations. It pays particlar attention to the system of initial consonant alternations in noun and verb phrases. Principal models of word-formation are discussed in the third section. The fourth section is devoted to the analysis of nominal and verbal morphology, pronominal system, numerals, adverbs, graphic words, connective words and interjections. Special emphasis is laid to the unique system of cardinals consisting of 26 sub-systems, each of those is used for counting objects of special types. The section also focuses on finite verbal forms and their categories, as well as on non-finite verbal forms. Nivkh is well-known for its numerous converbs, which number is about 30. The last section examines syntax of noun and verb phrases, word order, clause structure and clause chaining with special reference to a polypredicative construction. The last is usually represented as a predicate complex whose verbal forms are interlinked by different semantic relations, namely tense, cause, condition, concession, etc.

2nd printing. (visit our webshop: www.lincom.at)

Publication Year: 2003
Publisher: Lincom GmbH
Review: Read the review
BibTex: View BibTex record
Linguistic Field(s): General Linguistics
Asian languages
Subject Language(s): Gilyak
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Versions:
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 3895860395
ISBN-13: N/A
Pages: 60
Prices: EUR 29.20