"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Since the 1980s, metaphor has received much attention in linguistics in general. Within Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) the area of 'grammatical metaphor' has become increasingly more important. This volume aims to raise and debate problematic issues in the study of lexico-grammatical metaphor, and to foreground the potential of further study in the field. There is a need to highlight the SFL perspective on metaphor; other traditions focus on lexical aspects, and from cognitive perspectives, while SFL focuses on the grammatical dimension, and socio-functional aspects in the explanation of this phenomenon.
Table of contents
Preface J.R. Martin 1–3 Grammatical metaphor in SFL: A historiography of the introduction and initial study of the concept Miriam Taverniers 5–33 Part I. Grammatical metaphor: Clarification and application 35 Renewal of connection: Intergrating theory and practice in an understanding of grammatical metaphor Louise J. Ravelli 37–64 Nominalization as grammatical metaphor: On the need for a radically systemic and metafunctional approach Liesbet Heyvaert 65–99 Ambiguity in grammatical metaphor: One more reason why the distinction transitive/ergative pays off Jorge Arús Hita 101–126 The evolution of grammatical metaphor in scientific writing David Banks 127–147 Part II. Development of metaphor in children 149 The use of a metaphorical mode of meaning in early language development Clare Painter 151–167 The emergence of grammatical metaphor: Literacy-oriented expressions in the everyday speech of young children Jane Torr and Alyson Simpson 169–183 Grammatical metaphor in the transition to adolescence Beverly Derewianka 185–219 Part III. Interpersonal metaphor: Enactment and positioning 221 Lexical metaphor and interpersonal meaning Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen 223–255 The elided participant: Presenting an uncommonsense view of the researcher’s role Geoff Thompson 257–278 Imperative readings of grammatical metaphor: A study of congruency in the imperative Inger Lassen 279–308 Part IV. ‘Metaphor’ in grammar and in other modes of meaning 309 Phonological metaphor Robert Veltman 311–335 Intersemiosis in mathematics and science: Grammatical metaphor and semiotic metaphor Kay O’Halloran 337–365 Part V. Metaphor in metalinguistic perspectives 367 The conduit metaphor and the analysis of meaning: Peircean semiotics, cognitive grammar and systemic functional grammar Patrick Goethals 369–389 Grammatical metaphor as a cognitive construct Randal Holme 391–415 ‘Having things both ways’: Grammatical metaphor in a systemic-functional model of language Robin Melrose 417–442 Subject Index 443–453