"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Development of Prosodic Structure in Early Words
This monograph addresses three basic questions regarding the development of word-internal prosodic structure: How much of the phonological structure of early words is regulated by the same constituents and principles that govern the organization of prosodic structure of mature grammar? Why do early words diverge from the adult targets in shape and size? And what is the best way to model developmental changes that occur in prosodic structure? Answers to these questions are explored through the longitudinal analysis of spontaneous production data from child Japanese. The analysis provides new types of evidence and new arguments that the prosodic phonology of young children is largely continuous with that of adults, and that the surface child-adult divergence in word forms and the overall pattern of developmental changes are best explained in terms of ranked violable constraints on the representation of prosodic structure, whose ordering is modified in the course of acquisition.
Table of contents
1. Introduction 1–9
2. Phonological theory and prosodic acquisition 11–46
3. Methods 47–52
4. The representation of early syllable-internal structure 53–78
5. The development of syllable-internal structure 79–128
6. The representation of early word-internal structure 129–158
7. The development of word-internal structure 159–184
8. General conclusions and further directions 185–190
Appendix: The segment inventory of Japanese 191
Author index 213–216
Language index 217
Subject index 219–222