"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The Phonology of Endo A Southern Nilotic Language of Kenya Joost Zwarts Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS
Endo is a southern Nilotic (Kalenjin) language spoken in the west of Kenya by about 50,000 people that has not been previously described in the literature. In this book the segmental phonology of Endo is covered in great detail, based on the personal field work of the author. After an overview of the consonant and vowel inventories the structure of syllables is described. There are chapters on phonological processes involving consonants and processes involving vowels. Special attention is paid to the vowel harmony phenomena in this language and there is a chapter on some aspects of the tonal system. An appendix gives an extensive overview of the rich morphology of Endo. The book is relevant for linguists and anthropologists interested in African languages as well as for phonologists and morphologists interested in sound processes and word structure phenomena. The description is theory-independent, which guarantees a wide and long-term accessibility to the unique features of this language.
Table of Contents
List of Maps and Tables List of Symbols and Abbreviations 1 Introduction 2 Consonant inventory 2.1 Consonant phonemes 2.2 Consonant realizations 3 Vowel inventory 3.1 Vowel phonemes 3.2 Tongue root position 3.3 Vowel length 3.4 Vowel quality 3.4.1 The status of the short -ATR e 3.4.2 The reduction of -ATR short vowels 3.4.3 The reduction of +ATR short vowels 3.4.4 The reduction of the high vowels i and u 4 Syllable structure 4.1 The core syllable 4.1.1 The onset 4.1.2 The coda 4.2 Outside the syllable 4.3 Syllable sequences 4.3.1 Syllable junctures 4.3.2 Reduplication 4.3.3 Vowel combinations 4.3.4 Roots that are longer than two syllables 5 Processes involving consonants 5.1 Assimilation 5.1.1 Manner assimilation 5.1.2 Place assimilation 5.2 Weakening .....(For the entire abstract, please see the LINCOM webshop: lincom.at)
ISBN 3 89586 820 5. 140pp. LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 59. EUR 46.00. 2004.