"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Xakas is a Turkic language spoken by 70,000 people in south central Siberia. Xakas is a cover term created in the early 20th century to cover the related dialect clusters of the region; the termis positively viewed by some members of the ethnolinguistic group and negatively by others. Xakas is one of the only Turkic languages to preserve nine short vowels. Morphologically, Xakas shows an unusually high number of affixally realized verbal categories, as well as a complicated AUX verb system. In the imperative Xakas has preserved a dual inclusive. Xakas has a very high number of cases for a Turkic language (9), a number more typical of central and eastern Siberian languages. Due to the centuries-long contact with speakers of Russian, Xakas not only has a large number of Russian loans but it also shows a great-degree of contact-induced restructuring, some examples of which have even found their way into the standardized literary language. The present study is an analysis of the standardized register of Xakas, and constitutes the first description of Xakas in English.