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It's Been Said Before

By Orin Hargraves

It's Been Said Before "examines why certain phrases become clichés and why they should be avoided -- or why they still have life left in them."

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Sounds Fascinating

By J. C. Wells

How do you pronounce biopic, synod, and Breughel? - and why? Do our cake and archaic sound the same? Where does the stress go in stalagmite? What's odd about the word epergne? As a finale, the author writes a letter to his 16-year-old self.

Book Information


Title: Expletive and Referential Subject Pronouns in Medieval French
Written By: Michael Zimmermann
Series Title: De Gruyter Linguistische Arbeiten 556

Medieval French, usually analyzed as a null subject language, differs considerably from modern Romance null subject languages such as Spanish in the availability of non-expressed subject pronouns; specifically, it shows characteristics reminiscent of non-null, rather than null subject languages, such as the expression of expletive subject pronouns. The central goal of this book is to put forward an account of these differences. On the basis of the analysis of an extensive, newly established data corpus, the development of the expression of both expletive and referential subject pronouns until the 17th c. is determined. Following a thorough discussion of previous approaches, an alternative approach is presented which builds on the analysis of Medieval French as a non-null subject language. The non-expression of subject pronouns, licit in specific contexts in non-null subject languages, is shown to be restricted to configurations generally involving left-peripheral focalization. These configurations – and, concomitantly, non-expressed subject pronouns – are finally argued to be eventually lost for good in the wake of the initial observation by 17th c. writers of pertinent instructions campaigned for in highly influential works of language use.

Publication Year: 2014
Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton
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Linguistic Field(s): Historical Linguistics
Text/Corpus Linguistics
Subject Language(s): French
French, Middle
French, Old
Language Family(ies): Romance
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Format: Electronic
ISBN-13: 9783110394306
Pages: 245
Prices: Europe EURO 99.95
Format: Hardback
ISBN-13: 9783110373370
Pages: 245
Prices: Europe EURO 99.95