"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Positive Versus Negative
A cognitive perspective on wording effects for contrastive questions in attitude surveys
This study is the first to show that the choice for a positive or a negative question wording systematically affects survey answers: respondents are more likely to answer no or disagree to negative attitude questions (e.g. X is bad. Yes/No) than to answer yes or agree to equivalent positive ones (e.g. X is good. Yes/No). To unravel the causes for this positive/negative asymmetry, we related
wording effects to the cognitive processes underlying question answering. Two eye-tracking studies were conducted to obtain information about the temporal aspects of the question-answering process for positive versus negative questions. The observed time differences were subsequently related to a theoretical model for the question-answering process. This was done using a combination of insights about processing survey questions, experimental designs in which that knowledge was used, and newly designed eye-tracking measures that are relevant for these specific purposes. With this combination of strategies we were able to demonstrate that contrastive questions cause similar attitudes to be retrieved from memory. Therefore, they measure the same underlying attitude, and hence, are equally valid. Wording effects arise when respondents translate their own opinion into the response options. During this stage, the answering options are assigned a meaning that is not absolute, but relative to the polarity of the evaluative term in the question. The conclusions drawn from this study have implications for theories about text processing in general, and for theories about the cognitive processes of question-answering in particular. These implications, as well as the implications for survey practice, are discussed in this dissertation.