"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Linguists have become aware that metonymy is not just a contiguity-based figure of speech but that it is a pervasive cognitive-linguistic mechanism which influences different linguistic levels. This linguistic insight is reflected in Dutch and German dictionaries, which use metonymy-tags, for many examples, for many senses and for many word combinations, such as verbs that can be combined with different types of direct objects. A specific label used for the last phenomenon is objectsverwisseling or Objektsvertauschung, which could be translated as Metonymical Object Change (MOC). MOCs are better known in linguistics as transitive locative alternations, material-product alternations and instances of logical metonymy. This dissertation analyses these three types of argument alternations as metonymy-based. The focus of the analysis is therefore on the contiguity relation between the different possible direct objects. In all cases, it is this relation which underlies and restricts the possibility of changing a direct object. A qualitative analysis of corpus data is used to examine MOCs in Dutch and German. This makes this study corpus-oriented. The interpretation of MOCs is modelled in a frame semantic approach. This dissertation not only examines and clarifies the concept of MOC by analyzing a large number of data -which could be useful from a lexicographical perspective-, but it also provides theoretical insights into the phenomenon of metonymy in general.