"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Washback in Language Testing: Research contexts and methods
Since Alderson and Wall (1993) posited a seemingly rhetorical question, "Does washback exist?" language testing professionals have directed attention to the impact of testing on teaching, learning, educational outcomes, and individuals. This edited volume is the culmination of language testing professionals' conscious efforts to better understand washback. It bears rich testimony to the complex nature of washback phenomena in every corner of educational systems. It is a useful resource for those seeking guidance on their own washback studies—for teachers and school
administrators who are haunted by the power of tests and for those who need empirical evidence for and against test washback in specific testing situations.