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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more



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What is English? And Why Should We Care?

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To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.


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Medical Writing in Early Modern English

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Academic Paper


Title: Anger Metaphors in the English Language
Paper URL: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/03/esenova/
Author: Orazgozel Esenova
Email: click here to access email
Linguistic Field: Cognitive Science
Subject Language: English
Abstract: This paper is written within the framework of cognitive semantics and examines a group of anger metaphors which have largely been ignored by cognitive linguists. These metaphors map the source domains of ANIMAL, CONTAINER, PLANT and CHILD onto the target domain of ANGER. The metaphorical expressions analyzed in this study have been taken from various dictionaries, the BNC and the Internet. The data elicited from dictionaries and the BNC have been collected by using the source-domain-oriented approach. Initially, a group of lexical items related to the above source domains are selected. The dictionary and corpus entries for these items are then investigated. Next, metaphorical anger expressions containing the search items are retrieved and clustered under their conceptual metaphors.

The source-domain-oriented method works well when applied to corpus and dictionary data. However, it works less well when applied to linguistic data on the Internet. When the Internet is searched for a particular source domain word or expression, the search engine may give many irrelevant hits. Usually, the problem is remedied by adding more keywords to the existing query. However, to do this it is necessary to know which words and expressions are more likely to co-occur with the lexical item under examination. An analogy-based method of predicting possible collocational patterns of the source domain vocabulary has been developed and applied so as to circumvent this problem. The Internet was searched for the predicted collocations and the metaphorical anger expressions associated with them were retrieved and analyzed under their conceptual metaphors. The study shows that the word collocations elicited by this method allow relevant linguistic metaphors to be found on the Internet without difficulty.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: Varieng: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English
URL: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/03/esenova/


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