"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Standard parameter estimation schemes for statistical translation models can struggle to find reasonable settings on some parallel corpora. We show how auxiliary information can be used to constrain the procedure directly by restricting the set of alignments explored during parameter estimation. This enables the integration of bilingual and monolingual knowledge sources while retaining the flexibility of the underlying models. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for incorporating linguistic and domain-specific constraints on various parallel corpora, and consider the importance of using the context of the parallel text to guide the application of such constraints.