"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Yes or no? How young French children combine gestures and speech to agree and refuse
The aim of the study presented here was to examine variations in the forms and functions of agreement and refusal messages – which can be solely gestural, solely verbal, or combined gestural and verbal – by thirty children aged 1;4, 2;0, and 3;0 (ten in each age group) observed at home during an interaction with their mother. The results showed that even though verbal forms were the predominant ones as a whole, gestural forms were carried over into the linguistic period, and for the youngest children, constituted the sole means of agreeing and refusing. They also showed that the most frequently expressed function was assertion.