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Words in Time and Place: Exploring Language Through the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary

By David Crystal

Offers a unique view of the English language and its development, and includes witty commentary and anecdotes along the way.


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Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases

By Peter Mark Roget

This book "supplies a vocabulary of English words and idiomatic phrases 'arranged … according to the ideas which they express'. The thesaurus, continually expanded and updated, has always remained in print, but this reissued first edition shows the impressive breadth of Roget's own knowledge and interests."


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Academic Paper


Title: Germanico Runes...a Finnish Alphabet!
Paper URL: michelangelo.cn
Author: Michelangelo Naddeo
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://michelangelo.cn
Institution: 3F Limited
Linguistic Field: Historical Linguistics
Abstract: At the beginning of the second millennium B.C. a runic alphabet consisting of 16 letters was already in existence in Flavia, a region in the north of Europe. It was used by the Finno-Ugric, Flavio populations of Europe and created by the need to write a Finnic language from which modern Finnish is derived./L//L/When the Indo-Europeans arrived in Europe from the steppe, they did not have an alphabet and were not able to write./L//L/In the second half of the second millennium B.C. the Germanici, a population of mixed Flavio-Steppico origin, began to use the Flavio runic script and to modify the pronunciation of some letters. Then they started to add letters to the end of the alphabet and, finally, to insert other letters into the alphabet. Altogether they added an “ætt”. The Runes became an alphabet of 24 letters./L//L/But as soon as the Germanici left, the Vikings went back to writing with a 16-letter alphabet which was in keeping with their ancient phonology. Such a strange and drastic reduction of phonemes had so far remained unexplained and inexplicable!/L//L/The Indo-Europeanists maintain that Indo-European was an [o] language, that became an [a] language for a certain, proto-germanic period and then returned to being an [o] language in modern Germanic languages. The [a] period was a mutation brought about by the underlying Finnic substratum, which did not have the [o]. For the same reason, in Flavia, the movable Indo-European accent became fixed on the first syllable./L//L/When the Indo-Europeans arrived, the Finnics already knew not only how to write, but even how to .... speak!!!/L//L/The phonology of ancient Europe was very limited, while that of the Indo-European newcomers was rich in aspirated and sonorous consonants. Modern European phonology developed from the mixing of the languages of these two peoples. This process was, however, incompatible with some of the “laws” of Indo-Europeanism./L//L/One of Grimm’s laws was …. just another of his fairy tales./L//L/Before the arrival of the Indo-Europeans, Europe almost certainly had its own phonological homogeneity, if not a complete linguistic one, with the sole exception perhaps of the Basque lands.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: book available at michelangelo.cn
URL: michelangelo.cn


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