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It's Been Said Before

By Orin Hargraves

It's Been Said Before "examines why certain phrases become clichés and why they should be avoided -- or why they still have life left in them."

New from Cambridge University Press!


Sounds Fascinating

By J. C. Wells

How do you pronounce biopic, synod, and Breughel? - and why? Do our cake and archaic sound the same? Where does the stress go in stalagmite? What's odd about the word epergne? As a finale, the author writes a letter to his 16-year-old self.

Academic Paper

Title: A Reference Architecture for Natural Language Generation Systems
Author: Chris Mellish
Institution: University of Aberdeen
Author: Mike Reape
Institution: University of Edinburgh
Linguistic Field: Computational Linguistics
Abstract: We present the RAGS (Reference Architecture for Generation Systems) framework: a specification of an abstract Natural Language Generation (NLG) system architecture to support sharing, re-use, comparison and evaluation of NLG technologies. We argue that the evidence from a survey of actual NLG systems calls for a different emphasis in a reference proposal from that seen in similar initiatives in information extraction and multimedia interfaces. We introduce the framework itself, in particular the two-level data model that allows us to support the complex data requirements of NLG systems in a flexible and coherent fashion, and describe our efforts to validate the framework through a range of implementations.


This article appears IN Natural Language Engineering Vol. 12, Issue 1.

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