"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Akatsuka, Noriko M. and Susan Strauss, ed. (2002) Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 10. CSLI Publications.
Spas Rangelov, University of London
Japanese/Korean Linguistic Volume 10 is the newest addition to the Japanese/Korean Linguistics series. In Volume 10 Noriko Akatsuka and Susan Strauss return as editors of the long-running series (previously Akatsuka has edited or co-edited Volumes 4, 5 and 7, and Strauss has co-edited Volumes 5 and 7). Like the previous volumes in this series it presents papers from the Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference, an annual forum for linguists who work in these fields, mainly in the USA but also in other countries. The papers in the volume have been delivered at the Tenth Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference that was held in October 2000. The number of the papers included in the volume is 45. Twelve of them are by the specially invited speakers and the rest have been competitively selected. They are divided into five parts that reflects the conference's "unique division into five panels" (from the back cover). The book is dedicated to the memory of the distinguished linguist James D. McCawley (1938-1999) who has contributed greatly to the development of both Japanese and Korean linguistics and was, as the editors write, "one of the giants of 20th century general linguistics." The invited speakers are all his friends and former students. The name of Jim McCawley gets mentioned in some of the papers with warmth and admiration. On the second page of the book there is a reproduction of a photograph of McCawley. After the preface there is a an account by McCawley that he contributed to the family newsletter which adds a deeply felt personal touch to the volume.
Part I, Cognition and Grammar, consists of eight papers that deal from different angles with the interactions of syntax, semantics and cognition.
The first paper is "On the Interaction of Temporal and Modal Meaning in Japanese Conditionals" by Wesley M. Jacobsen, one of the invited speakers. The paper addresses a topic that is related to Japanese conditionals that have already been examined by the author elsewhere (Jacobsen 1999). In this further study an account is proposed for the tendency for aspectually stative conditional clauses to be given a hypothetical interpretation. The study is in the framework of establishing correlations between semantic parameters and certain meanings, e.g. hypothetical meaning.
"Processing Japanese and Korean: Full Attachment versus Efficiency" by William O'Grady, Michiko Nakamura and Miseon Lee examines the problems of parsing languages of the type of Japanese and Korean in a formalist framework. The formalist analyses and processing schemes for SOV languages and SVO languages are contrasted in the context of machine processing of texts. A special attention is paid to quantifier structures and their treatment is based on earlier analyses (O'Grady 1991, Sells 1995). The theoretical and practical implications of this type of studies are very important for contemporary science.
"Japanese and Korean Causatives Revisited" by Masayoshi Shibatani and Sung Yeo Chung is an important contribution to the debate on Japanese and Korean causatives. Despite the similarities, the morphology and semantics of the causatives in the two languages demonstrate differences. A contrastive approach actually proves fruitful in clarifying the morphological and semantic irregularities and mismatches within each language.
Sung-Chool Im's "Characteristic Lexicalization Patterns of Motion Events in Korean" uses the conflation patterns of semantic elements in cognitive semantics to account for three characteristic lexicalization patterns of motion verbs in Korean in a typological-functional framework. The paper is clearly written and comprehensively accounts for the different groups of monomorphemic and polymorphemic motion verbs.
"The Processing of Wh-phrases and Interrogative Complementizers in Japanese" by Edson T. Miyamoto and Shoichi Takahashi argues that the processing of in-situ wh-phrases in Japanese can be explained by the same procedure that underlies the processing of fronted wh-phrases in English. Combining the achievements of the generative and the psycholinguistic traditions, the authors support the proposed model with the results of a reading time experiment.
"On Sound Symbolism in Japanese and Korean" by Reijirou Shibasaki is based on two experiments, a psychological one and a phonological one. The author starts with a working hypothesis about the sound symbolic words (SSWs) which is reformulated at the end due to the findings. The study reaches the conclusion that SSWs are rich in quantity, systematically organized and highly motivated.
Mitsuaki Shimojo's "A Cognitive Account of Extraction Asymmetry in Japanese Relative Clauses" investigates the similarities and the differences between the so-called externally-headed relative clauses (EHRCs) and internally-headed relative clauses (IHRCs) (the latter are studied in other papers in this book). The author finds that the two types are analogous in relativization and topicalization but wh- questions in IHRCs are more restricted than in EHRCs. The study is from a cognitive perspective.
"Grammar, Cognition and Procedure as Reflected in Route Directions in Japanese, Korean and American English" by Susan Strauss, Hanae Katayama and Jong Oh Eun is based on a corpus of 75 spontaneously produced route directions elicited from people on a university campus in three different languages: Japanese, Korean and American English. The cross- linguistic analysis uncovers tendencies in the grammar of each language which reflect deeper levels of human cognition.
Part II, Discourse and Conversation, consists of eight papers.
The first paper in this part, "When Does Communication Turn Mentally Inward?: A Case Study of Japanese Formal-to-Informal Switching" by Seiichi Makino from Princeton University, one of the invited speakers, addresses the interesting phenomenon of formal-to-informal switching in the context of Japanese discourse studies. The author discusses the choice between informal and formal forms at the sentence level and then investigates the more complex discourse phenomena from a variety of viewpoints. It is found that formal-to-informal switching signals that the speaker turns the communicative direction inwardly.
"Markers of Epistemic vs. Affective Stances: Desyoo vs. Zyanai" by Naomi Hanaoka McGloin examines closely and compares two Japanese sentence-final expressions, desyoo and zyanai, in the framework of text analysis. The author shows that desyoo can be considered as a marker of epistemic stance while zyanai can be viewed as a marker of affected stance.
Haruko Minegishi Cook's "The Social Meanings of the Japanese Plain Form" examines the use of the so-called plain form in Japanese in the framework of discourse modality. It is concluded that the plain form foregrounds an affect key if there is one; otherwise it foregrounds the informational content. The author also finds that "occurrence of the naked plain form in speech is not random in at least institutional settings." It is also noted that intonation plays an important role in interpreting social meaning.
The fourth paper in this part, "Listener Responses in Telephone and Face-to-face Conversations: How do Non-verbal Behaviors Affect Japanese and English Interactions?" by Hiroko Furo, investigates how nonverbal cues, like gestures and head nods, affect social interaction by exploring how frequently and at what points listener responses are verbalized in telephone and face-to-face conversations. It also studies how culture affects verbal and nonverbal listening behaviours by comparing conversation in Japanese and American English. The author finds that nonverbal cues affect Japanese and English conversations to a similar degree.
Kaoru Horie and Kaori Taira's "Where Korean and Japanese Differ: Modality vs. Discourse Modality" finds that modality systems in Korean and Japanese are similar only superficially; at closer inspection they exhibit remarkable difference. The authors sum up that modality meaning related to propositional content is elaborately encoded in Korean, whereas discourse modality is systematically manifested in Japanese.
"Demonstratives as Prospective Indexicals: ku and ce in Korean Conversation" by Kyu-hyun Kim and Kyung-Hee Suh is a thorough study of the functions of two demonstrative attributive words, ku and ce, which are part of the demonstrative triad i/ku/ce. The paper explicates the uses of the two forms when they are used as prospective indexicals and highlights the differences between the two in an illuminating way that both researchers and learners of Korean will find satisfying.
Maeri Megumi's "The Switching Between desu/masu Form and Plain Form: From Perspective of Turn Construction" uses the methodology of conversation analysis to examine a peculiar phenomenon in Japanese, the switching from the so-called desu/masu forms to plain forms, in the framework of the theory of politeness. The author explores the empirical material and reaches interesting conclusions about the situations in which speakers choose to switch from one register to another and the importance of the social factors and implications, like social status and sex of the speaker, whether they are speaking to a specific person or giving a presentation to an audience, etc.
The last paper in this part, Emi Morita's "Stance Marking in the Collaborative Completion of Sentences: Final Particles as Epistemic Markers in Japanese," studies cases in which utterance completion includes attitudinal markers in the shape of final particles, e.g. yo, ne, yone. The author finds that speakers employ them to position themselves as candidates for collaboration to various degrees. Regarding final particles as markers of epistemic stance, the author shows how using them in conversation a second speaker can claim different degrees of authority.
Part III, Historical Linguistics and Grammaticalization, has the fewest number of papers, seven. They are a welcome and refreshing addition to a somewhat neglected subfield of Japanese and Korean linguistics.
The first paper in this part is Sang-Cheol Ahn's "A Dispersion Account on Middle Korean Vowel Shifts." The author accounts for the processes, usually referred to as "the Vowel Shift in Middle Korean" from the perspectives of the Dispersion Theory in conjunction with the postulates of the Optimality Theory (OT). The arguments are supported by a body of correspondences between Middle Mongolian words and 15th century Korean loanwords from Mongolian.
The next papers is "Genitive tu in OJ and Historical Changes of Genitive Particles" by Yu Hirata. Using the methods of historical linguistics the author charts the history of a specific linguistic form, tu in Old Japanese (OJ), from Genitive marker (GEN) to Pronominal Genitive (Pro-GEN) to Bound Pronominal (Bd-Pro) and then to Nominalizer (NMZ) and Sentence Final Particle (SFP). The relationship with Korean and its likely cognate, s, is also addressed.
In Minju Kim's "On the Emergence of Korean Concessive myense: Focusing on the Grammaticalization of se" the history of the Korean clausal connective myense is thoroughly explored. Examining the evidence from phonology and linguistic change the author traces back the origin of the linguistic form to the forms mye and se and also addresses the issue of the status of se generally. The different forms in which the element se is contained are accounted for in the grammaticalization framework.
Kyoko Hirose Ohara's "From Relativization to Clause-linkage: A Constructional Account of Japanese Internally Headed Relativization" discusses the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of the so- called "concessive clause-linking constructions." She also proposes that the Internally Headed Relativization (IHR) constructions (also discussed in Matsuda's paper in Part V) may be reanalysed in Modern Japanese as concessive clause-linking constructions. The evidence points to the necessity to consider the diachronic data and the grammaticalization processes when analysing and explaining Modern Japanese grammar.
Kaoru Ohta's "Kakarimusubi and Focus Structure" is a paper that deals with the so-called Kakarimusibi (KM) constructions in Old Japanese (OJ). An analysis of the Focus interpretation of these and the Middle Japanese (MJ) pseudocleft constructions is proposed in a general formalist framework. The work uses synchronic rather than diachronic approaches towards the language phenomena.
"Discourse, Grammaticalization, & Intonation: An Analysis of -ketun in Korean" by Mee-Jeong Park and Sung-Ock S. Sohn is a study of the Korean verbal suffix -ketun from a historical and grammaticalizational perspective, as well as in a pragmatic context. Studying the interplay of discourse and intonation in the usages of -ketun, the authors reach insights about the discourse-based grammaticalization and the role of intonation and tone features in language change.
"Kakari Musubi, Noda-constructions, and How Grammaticalization Theory Meets Formal Grammar" by Wolfram Schaffar also looks at the so-called Kakari Musubi constructions in Classical Japanese, like Ohta's paper from this part. The author clarifies the notion of morphological 'focus' and 'background.' For the theoretical discussion data from a variety of languages (including Tibeto-Burman and African) is brought forward. In order to account for the Kakari Musubi constructions and the origin and development of Modern Japanese Noda-constructions a cyclic grammaticalization process with four steps is put forward.
Part IV, Phonetics and Phonology, unites eight papers covering a range of topics in Japanese and Korean sound systems and prosody.
The part opens with a paper by one of the invited speakers, S.-Y. Kuroda, "Rendaku." The author acknowledges the significance of McCawley 1968 in establishing the foundations of generative phonology of Japanese. Then the author summarizes the facts and the interpretations of the Japanese linguistic phenomenon rendaku, the voicing of voiceless obstruents at the beginning of an internal component of a compound word, and gives an elegant and comprehensive formal account of the relevant part of Japanese phonology.
The next paper in this part is "Supporting Korean and Japanese on the Internet: Web Standards, Unicode and National Character Encodings" by Katsuhiko Momoi from Netscape Communications Corp. This paper is more about writing systems and text processing rather than about phonetics or phonology. It is very informative and gives answers to an awful lot of questions about Korean, Japanese and Chinese IT support that often appear on various dedicated mailing lists and discussion groups in Japanese and Korean studies. It provides the reader with a lot of useful information on encoding methods, fonts, character set standards, input method editors, etc. It is good reference for the current situation.
The third paper in this part is Timothy J. Vance's "Semantic Bifurcation in Japanese Compound Verbs" investigates an interesting phenomenon: the coexistence of compound verbs in Japanese with alternation of the final mora of the first element with a mora obstruent in parallel with the source form and the bifurcation of meaning that accompanies this phenomenon. Insightful observations about expressiveness and semantic diversification are made.
"Moraic Structure and Segment Duration in Korean" by Emily Curtis is an elegant and comprehensive exposition of a production experiment that tests the effects on vowel duration of various syllable and moraic configurations. Korean is chosen as an appropriate language for such an experiment and the findings are insightful about the interaction of the moraic and the syllabic articulation of Korean.
Stuart Davis and Isao Ueda's "Mora Augmentation in Shizuoka Japanese" is of great interest because it presents a not very well known feature of the Shizuoka dialect of Japanese, mora augmentation in adjectival emphasis. The very complex patterns of mora augmentation are accounted for in a unified manner in the formal framework of Optimality Theory.
"Phonetic Duration of English /s/ and its borrowing in Korean" by Soohee Kim and Emily Curtis deals with the issues of phonemic adaptation of loanwords; in this case the focus is on the accommodation in Korean of the English consonant /s/. The theoretical elaborations are accompanied by two experiments, a production one and a perception one, and the conclusions point to possible paths of future research in that vein.
Byung-Jin Lim's "Local and Global Patterns of Temporal Compensations in Korean" concentrates on the temporal compensatory interaction between vowel length, aspiration, tension and voicing of consonants and syllable structure in Korean. The study also finds that the interval from consonant release to consonant release "shows relatively constant values" and that is compared to the peculiarities of Korean traditional orthography. The results confirm previous studies and also lead to some new conclusions.
"Prosody and Information Structure in Japanese: A Case Study of Topic Marker wa" by Kimiko Nakanishi is a study of the interface of prosody and information structure. The author explores to what extent phonological means express information structure. Two experiments and a corpus study are conducted with the aim to examine the prosodic patterns of the topic marker wa in two functions, thematic and contrastive. The exposition is richly illustrated with charts that visualize the findings.
Part V, Syntax and Semantics, contains fourteen papers that examine questions of syntax.
The first paper in this part is "Information Unpackaging: A Constraint- based Unified Grammar Approach to Topic-Focus Articulation" by Suk-Jin Chang from Seoul National University. The approached subject is the "topic-focus articulation" (TFA) of the sentence, a notion that comes from the tradition of the Prague Linguistic Circle. This short but very interesting paper concentrates on two subtopics: the interaction of the stress (as a prosodic feature) with the TFA, and dialogue analysis from the perspective of TFA. A special emphasis is put on the prosody- pragmatics interface and its implications for the information analysis. The framework is formalist, stemming from Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and is called Constraint-based Unified Grammar of Korean (CUG/K). It has been developed by the same author in previous publications (e.g. Chang 1994). The potential applications of this innovative framework for the study of Korean, as well as Japanese, are also mentioned.
Susumu Kuno's "NPI Licensing, O/Ga Alternation, Verb Raising and Scrambling" revisits some widely discussed topics in the literature on Japanese linguistics in the generative tradition, like the bracketing of the potential and experiential constructions, the alternation of the case markers O and Ga, case assignment, verb raising, Negative Polarity Items (NPI). The proposed new insights are illuminating and convincing.
"Negative Polarity in Korean and Japanese" by Chungmin Lee is a profound study of the distribution and development of NPIs and Free Choice Items (FPI) in Japanese and Korean in an advanced generative framework. A "unified solution of concession" is proposed that will certainly be useful in examining similar phenomena in other languages that share typological features with Japanese and Korean in this respect.
Yoko Sugioka's "Incorporation vs. Modification in Deverbal Compounds" examines the syntax of an interesting feature of Japanese morphology, the deverbal compounds (VC) in the framework of the tradition of Sugioka 1984. The paper illuminates the properties of the argument VCs and adjunct VCs from different angles: semantic, syntactic, phonological (especially interesting sections on accent patterns and rendaku).
"Syntactic and Pragmatic Properties of the NPI Yekan in Korean" by Sae- Youn Cho and Han-Gyu Lee is a thorough analysis of the syntactic properties (in a generative framework) and the pragmatics of a specific Negative Polarity Item in Korean. As the authors point out it is essential to study such items individually and "more empirical research is required." In this respect this is a pioneering paper.
"The Interpretation of Wh-elements in Conjoined Wh-questions" by Sungeun Cho and Xuan Zhou is a short paper that examines in detail a curious issue: while some conjoined wh-questions in languages like English can be ambiguous, the conjoined wh-questions in languages like Korean or Japanese are not. The phenomena are approached in a minimalist framework.
In "Complex Predicate Formation and Argument Structure of Japanese V-V Compounds" Thomas Gamerschlag gives an account of the grammar of a subclass of Japanese verb compounds, namely the "lexical compound verbs," characterized by the absence of complement-functor relation between the two verbs in the compound. The proposed innovative analysis is in the theoretical framework of Lexical Decomposition Grammar (LDG).
In "Nominative-Genitive Conversion Revisited" Ken Hiraiwa from Massachusetts Institute of Technology re-examines the traditional analysis (in the generative tradition) of Nominative-Genitive Conversion (NGC) in Japanese and supplies a lot of evidence to show that it is not very adequate and convincing. The author proposes a new descriptive generalization of NGC in a minimalist framework that is of higher adequacy.
"A 'Removal' Type of Negative Predicates" by Jieun Joe and Chungmin Lee is yet another paper on negation in this book. This one is highly theoretical. It establishes a new class of negative predicates, removal predicates, and discusses in depth the kinds of removal predicates, as well as their semantics, syntax and morphological characteristics.
Jong Sup Jun's "Semantic Co-Composition of the Korean Substantival Nouns-ha(ta) Construction: Evidence for the Generative Lexicon" explains the semantics of the verbal constructions with the "light verb" hata in Korean. Using co-composition a device in the Generative Lexicon (GL) theoretical framework, the author adequately describes the corresponding facts in Korean and proposes a correlate in English.
Ae-Ryung Kim's "Two Positions of Korean Negation" is a profound study of the two types of Korean verbal negative constructions, commonly known as short-form negation and long-form negation. The author reviews the existing analyses and proposes a new analysis of the constructions and the status of the negation marker ani. The advantages of the suggested hypothesis are convincingly demonstrated.
"Opacity in Japanese and Korean" by Ae-Ryung Kim and Yoshihisa Kitagawa is a theoretical development of the notion of opacity (that is part of the generative tradition since the 1970s) in a minimalist framework. The authors introduce the notion of 'relativized opacity' and explore its implications for Japanese and Korean, as well as some phenomena in English.
"Intervention Effects are Focus Effects" by Shin-Sook Kim is an interesting cross-linguistic study of interrogative and negative constructions in a minimalist framework. Analysing NPIs in Korean as focus phrases, the author argues that an Intervention Effect is produced by focus phrases. Material from other languages, including Hindi and German, is brought into consideration too.
Yuki Matsuda's " Event Sensitivity of Head-Internal Relatives in Japanese" proposes an interesting semantic account of the Japanese constructions known as Head-Internal Relative (HIR) clauses (they are also discussed in Ohara's paper from Part II as Internally Headed Relativization clauses (IHRC)). The novel analysis accounts for a lot of problematic data. The advantage of this analysis is that it takes into consideration the semantic properties of the HIR clauses and is not purely syntactic.
There is a very carefully designed and useful index of topics at the end of the book.
It is very difficult for a single reviewer to evaluate forty-five different papers who are written in different frameworks, follow different traditions and refer to numerous publications. Inevitably, a single person will be attracted to the ones that are close to their research interests while other papers will be harder to follow and understand. It will be almost impossible to evaluate them even- handedly. Nevertheless, it can be definitely said that this volume's papers are clearly written and are accessible to readers with general specialist knowledge.
The book is an excellently edited and good-looking volume combining a large number of papers that approach different issues in Japanese and Korean linguistics from a variety of theoretical perspectives. The book is a forum that presents the work and latest achievements of the linguists who work in these fields at the universities in North America with international contributions, especially from Japan and South Korea. In the tradition of the Japanese/Korean Linguistics series different papers often appear typographically different (different fonts, sizes, alignment). Although they make the book look somewhat uneven, these feature actually contribute to the perception that the reader receives visual correspondences to the distinct voices of the individual contributors. This is an accessible and readable book that is highly recommendable for students and researchers, especially from other regions of the world, who want to keep up with the newest developments and enquiries in the scientific study of two important East Asian languages, Japanese and Korean.
Chang Suk-Jin. 1994. Thonghap Mwunqpeplon [Unified Grammar Theory]. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.
Jacobsen, Wesley M. 1999. Aspects of hypothetical meaning in Japanese conditionals. Function and Structure, ed. A. Kamio and T. Takami, 83- 122. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
McCawley, James D. 1968. The Phonological Component of a Grammar of Japanese. The Hague: Mouton.
O'Grady, William. 1991. Categories and Case: The Sentence Structure of Korean. Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Sells, Peter. 1995. Korean and Japanese Morphology from a Lexical Perspective. Linguistic Inquiry 26, 277-325.
Sugioka, Yoko. 1984. Interaction of Derivational Morphology and Syntax in Japanese and English. PhD dissertation, U. Chicago. (Reprinted: Garland, 1986).
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Spas Rangelov is a postgraduate research student at the School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His research
interests include Korean and Japanese linguistics, general linguistics,
morphological theory, foreign-language teaching.