Containing around 3,700 dialect words from both Cornish and English,, this glossary was published in 1882 by Frederick W. P. Jago (1817–92) in an effort to describe and preserve the dialect as it too declined and it is an invaluable record of a disappearing dialect and way of life.
Author(s): Wales, Katie Title: Northern English SubTitle: A Social and Cultural History Publisher: Cambridge University Press Year: 2006
Daniela Cesiri, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Salento (formerly University of Lecce), Italy
As stated in the PREFACE, the aim of the book is to present a history -- strictly connected with social and cultural factors -- of the variety of English used in the Northern counties of Great Britain. The author introduces the monograph as a ''personal journey'' (p. xi), being herself born and raised in Darlington, Co. Durham, which also gives her the opportunity to provide the reader with a native speaker's insight into the variety she describes. This book is aimed at present-day and historical dialectologists, not only to illustrate a variety of English up to now understudied, but also to draw their attention to the danger of attaching cultural labels that only in a few cases reflect the actual identity of its users.
The latter topic is particularly developed in CHAPTER 1 (''The North-South divide''), where Wales first differentiates what a 'dialect' and a 'non-standard variety' of a language are in terms of their ideological connotations, and as compared to the 'prestige' usually attributed to the so-called Standard English. The author then continues venturing in the disputed geographical definition of 'North', since each scholar wanting to divide England into sections for dialectology studies has given a personal definition of this part of England. The 1974 public administration change of county boundaries has not done much to solve the problem, even in the Northerners' mind, whose opinion when asked to define the line where 'the South' begins has appeared to depend upon their birthplace. Only one point - at least in modern times - seems to remain fixed: Hadrian's Wall as a border between England and Scotland. In the final part of the chapter, Wales focuses on the stereotyped opinion (a sort of 'leitmotif' found throughout the book) shared by British people of 'the North' and 'the Northerners', providing literary and modern examples of ''mythologies of Northernness'' (p. 25).
In CHAPTER 2 (''The origins of Northern English''), the author describes how Northern English (henceforth NE) originated from a mixing of Old English and Scandinavian languages, as well as contacts with Celtic tribes either from Scotland or Ireland. In particular, Wales describes the confused cultural-political situation of Britain from the X century onwards: different cultures such as Viking invaders, Anglo-Saxon kings from the South and Celtic tribes coming into contact and mixing with each other with the 'help' of commercial relations, but above all of inter-marriage, and creating a rather 'rich' (euphemistically speaking) language contact situation. Because of linguistic similarities between their languages, Danes and Norsemen might have understood Northumbrians more easily than 'southerners', thus reinforcing interchanges and linguistic tendencies preserved until modern times, for example the use of ''hard'' consonants (p. 57), in which ''may well lie the root of the persistent myth that Northern consonants are '''harder' than Southern'' (p. 57), and creating ''a hybrid language ... a Mischsprache'' (italics in the text -- p. 58), something half-way between the Northumbrian dialect and the Scandinavian ones, all tinged with some elements from Celtic languages.
CHAPTER 3 (''Northern English and the rise of 'Standard English''') is devoted to a deeper exploration of the 'North-South' opposition from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth: as London increased its political and economical influence over England, its English, especially the courtly 'Chancery English', started to have a prominence in written texts and in the perception of 'gentlefolk', who considered it the most acceptable language as opposed to the Northern speech, which was considered expression of 'savageness' and vulgarity, thus increasing stereotypes and a general negative perception of Northerners. Wales argues, however, that from the seventeenth century -- and especially during the Romantic period -- a certain revaluation was going on, due to the growing vogue for ''educated ... metropolitans'' (p. 105) to discover the 'picturesque' side of Northern landscapes and its 'noble savage' dwellers, solitary inhabitants of those regions speaking ''an uncorrupted language in harmony with nature'' (p. 105). From the linguistic point of view, Wales stresses the role of NE in the spreading of certain syntactical features into ''Southern Middle English'' (p. 82-83), that are still present in Modern Standard English, such as ''I as the 1st person pronoun form'', ''levelling of past tense plurals'', and so on. Wales' theory is not that of the spreading of these features 'southernwards', but a ''spokes of a wheel theory'' (p. 85) or the extension of the grammatical features to southern speech with the help of contacts by trade and migration.
As CHAPTER 4's title states, ''Northern English after the Industrial Revolution'', Wales continues by describing the socio-cultural situation of NE from the nineteenth century to the early years of the twentieth, when industrialization pushed the Northern economy forward in ship building, coal-mining, wool production and trade. However, the way the Victorian bourgeois saw the 'Northerners' did not improve any more than in the previous centuries: on the one hand, 'Southerners' still stigmatised what they considered the coarse accent of the North; on the other hand, Victorian novelists tried to re-evaluate the dialect stressing the most positive characteristic of its speakers: simplicity and plain talk. The Victorian antiquarian vogue of compiling dialect glossaries and the growing interest of the general public in ballads and popular songs led to a better understanding and to the preservation of the dialect. It also 'propelled' the creation of new satirical works and of stereotypes referring to 'Northernness'. Moreover, diffusion of compulsory education and a general diffusion of literacy led young men, who wanted to elevate their social status, to move 'down South' and make every possible effort to lose their accent in order to be socially accepted. Wales supposes that nineteenth century migration to America, Australia and New Zealand might have introduced Northern linguistic features to the English spoken overseas, although scholars such as Knowles (1997:217) argues that NE made an ''insignificant contribution''. This situation continued well up to the early twentieth century, until the advent of the new technological media (cinema, radio and, later, television), which made the audience accept regional features, also thanks to the popularity of music halls, music recording and films where Northern characters became fashionable.
The last chapter, CHAPTER 5 (''Northern English present and future'') presents a more linguistically oriented approach regarding present-day NE distinctive features, as well as possible future scenarios for this variety. During the 1960s films and media entertainment contributed to the spreading of a different view of ''the North'', this happened also thanks to the famous soap opera ''Coronation Street'', and to the growing of various ''Dialect Societies'', soon followed by 'comic ''guides''' (p. 163) to Northern varieties which contributed to the preservation and to the revival of local identities. These phenomena encouraged the acceptability of regional varieties, although preserving in the meantime the usual stereotypes that still lead Northern youngsters, wishing to succeed in their careers, to adapt their accent to the more prestigious Received Pronunciation.
Wales continues by underlining the most neglected areas where NE needs further investigation by researchers --distinctive usages in grammar and discourse features, among others -- and ends the book by presenting the future, or various possible futures, for NE: ''dialect levelling'', which is the most feared and the most discussed threat among dialectologists, along with convergence around a single local 'metropolitan core'. Positive signs come from the Internet, where local communities find a space to ''assert identity'' (p. 209), and also from the tourist revaluation of Northern counties, which might help call workers to areas where in the past they escaped from. Both of these factors may help cement social and linguistic bonding in local communities.
This monograph is an extensive and thorough account of how Northern English has survived through time and how it was approached by 'Southerners', who were considered to speak a more prestigious variety of English, and how 'Northerners' reacted to this approach. What is interesting is the author's personal experience as a speaker of NE, mostly witnessed in the final chapter, that offers the reader both the scholar's and the native user's perspective. Another interesting point of this book is the final presentation of future scenarios. What is particularly convincing is the theory, shared with other scholars such as Milroy (1993) and Påhlsson (1972), of 'convergence' towards a single metropolitan core variety, and above all the proposal about the place where 'endangered' dialects might be preserved: the Internet and the World Wide Web. In particular, I would add 'blogs' (shortened form of 'web-logs') as the most fitting places where NE, as any other variety, is likely to be preserved: in these virtual spaces people who share the same identity (even if they don't live in the same place any more) virtually meet to (re-)assert their social and 'geographical' identity.
The style of the author is clear and plain, although she sometimes makes overabundant use of cross-references to preceding or subsequent sections of the book, or to other authors' research contributions. These references might well have been placed in notes, since they make the reading slow and the reader sometimes loses the point of the paragraph.
Apart from this, the book is suitable for those scholars who seek a guide to the SOCIAL and CULTURAL factors which have influenced the spread of this variety of English, since its linguistic features are just hinted at (with the exception of the final chapter), or indicated whenever it is necessary to help clarify the impact NE had on 'Standard English' (for example, to show the reasons why certain Northern features have been stigmatised more than others throughout its history). Thus the discussion is generally redirected to a social framework, according to stated purpose and title of the book.
For its focus on socio-cultural aspects of NE more than on linguistic ones, this book is not recommended for students looking for a general introduction to this variety, since the paucity of linguistic examples might restrict an overall study of its characteristics. Nor is it recommended to readers who do not have a general knowledge of topics and controversies in dialectology and sociolinguistics, since these are not deeply explained (which, in any case, would have been impossible to do in a single monograph), and quite often a deeper knowledge of these topics on the part of the reader is implied.
Knowles, G. (1997), The nature of phonological variables in Scouse. In P. Trudgill (ed.), 'Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English', pp.80-90. London: Edward Arnold.
Milroy, J. (1993), On the social origins of language change. In C, Jones (ed.), 'Historical Linguistics: Problems and Perspectives', pp. 215-36. London: Longman.
Påhlsson, C. (1972), The Northumbrian Burr. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Daniela Cesiri is currently a third year Ph.D. student at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Salento (formerly named University of Lecce), Italy. She is currently compiling a "Corpus of Irish Fairy and Folk Tales" to be analysed in her doctoral dissertation. Her main research interests include historical linguistics, lexicology, lexicography and historical dialectology with a particular focus on Irish English and its linguistic, as well as socio-cultural, interrelations with other varieties of the English Language in the British Isles.