"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Marie Ploquin, English Programs, University of Quebec in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The stated aim of this book is to provide an introductory course in phonetics with more content than the average introductory textbook. It is meant for students of all disciplines concerned, to whatever degree, with phonetics, covering transcription, articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics. A companion website provides sound files to illustrate the text.
Chapter 1 introduces the book and its structure and offers ''phonetics in a nutshell'', section that introduces basic phonetic concepts and terms.
Chapter 2, ''Articulatory Phonetics'', describes how sounds are produced. The description of the speech production apparatus is concise and satisfactory. The chapter deals exclusively with English sounds. The presentation of consonant features is classical, divided into a section on place of articulation and one on manner of articulation. No visual aid, no summarizing table and no sound files are provided to illustrate individual consonant sounds. A useful section, supported with a figure (2.2) and sound file, shows how the manner of articulation and voicing of consonants is graphically represented on oscillograms and spectrograms. The articulation of vowels, includes first the description of front vowels, ordered in terms of height, then the descriptions of back vowels also ordered for height, central vowels (for the words 'about', 'fur', and 'cut'), the diphthongs and diphthongized vowels. The section on back vowels triggers, and is interrupted by, a discussion about varieties of English, especially with regard to the difference -- or not -- in the pronunciation of 'caught' and 'cot'.
In chapter 3, ''Phonetic Transcription'', the authors discuss transcription and introduce the concepts of narrow and broad transcription, phonology vs. phonetics and minimal pairs. The rest of the chapter includes four parts: consonants, vowels, diacritics and other symbols, and the transcription of General American English. The section on consonants offers the broad transcription symbols of the consonants of English seen in chapter 2 and examples. In the section on vowels, the notions of lax and tense, quantity and quality, open and closed syllables, length, and centralization are introduced. Dialectal allophones of a few phonemes are discussed. The section on diacritics takes a set of examples -- dentals, apicals, laminals, length, and stress markers -- to continue the discussion between broad and narrow transcription. The final section, on transcription of General American English, is subdivided into consonants and vowels. Rather than offer a complete description of GA phonemes, it serves ''more to increase awareness of some regular processes of English'' (p.37) and their transcription, dealing with matters like aspiration, coarticulation, consonant release, flaps, glottal plosives, intrusion, and, for vowels, duration and effects of following consonants.
Chapter 4, ''Place and Manner of Articulation of Consonants and Vowels'', describes a wide range of sounds of the world's languages. The IPA consonant table is provided and consonants are presented by place of articulation (labial to guttural). A section on additional manners of articulation (those not explained in the chapters on English) provides information on trills, taps and flaps, and lateral fricatives. The discussion on vowels begins with the feature of length, illustrated with pairs of German vowels. The vowels are not necessarily explained or described ([y] / [ʏ] and [ø] / [œ] for instance). The production of vowels beyond the phonemic inventories of English and German is briefly described. The final part of the chapter introduces four types of secondary articulation -- labialization, palatalization, velarization and pharyngealization. No sound file to illustrate this chapter is provided on the accompanying website, contrary to p.50.
Chapter 5, ''Physiology of the Vocal Apparatus'', gives a thorough explanation of the anatomy and processes of speech production organized in three parts: the subglottal system, the larynx and the vocal tract. The first two describe the relevant anatomy, processes, theories and function in speech (loudness, for instance). The third part mainly describes the pharynx, the nasal tract and velum, and the oral tract. The chapter is quite detailed and includes drawings to illustrate both anatomy and processes.
Chapter 6, ''Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation types'', treats non-egressive airstream mechanisms, those used to produce ejectives, implosives and clicks. The description of phonation types includes the physical aspect (position of the vocal folds and vibration), examples of sounds and uses of each phonation type in English and other languages. The next section deals with voicing, voicelessness and aspiration only in the context of plosives. The notion of Voice Onset Time (VOT) is described at length. The last section, ''Common and rare sounds'', is based on the UPSID database (UCLA Phonetic Segment Inventory Database, 1984). The section however offers more information on ''common'' sounds than on ''rare'' ones, and only for consonants.
Chapter 7, ''Basic Acoustics'', provides a description of sound waves, their origin and propagation as well as of the speed of sound. The text includes numerous drawings and an on-going analogy with movements found in lines of people, still, swaying or standing. The next sections explain the transformation of air pressure into electric signals and the graphic representation (oscillograms) of the latter. The last part offers a thorough explanation of the acoustic concepts of frequency, amplitude and phase.
Chapter 8, ''Analysis Method for Speech Sounds'', is an imposing chapter in both size and content. Indeed, this 42-page chapter tackles issues such as the transformation of analog signals into digital signals, the description of the types of signals (periodic, quasi-periodic and non-periodic) and the different methods available to analyze speech signals. While many concepts explained in this section are technical (for instance, sampling rates, the Nyquist criterion, aliasing, Fourier transformation and harmonics), the explanations, illustrations and analogies enable the reader to easily grasp them. The chapter also presents the advantages and drawbacks of using the various graphic representations of speech signals: oscillograms, Fourier spectrum, LPC spectrum and spectrograms.
Chapter 9, ''The Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production'', deals with the separation of speech sounds into one or more source signals. The first three sections explain the notions of resonance, damping and filtering. Again, these technical notions are made accessible by clear and progressive explanation, for instance explaining resonance of cylindrical tubes before moving on to non-cylindrical tubes. The last two parts of the chapter apply those concepts to speech signals and explain the position of the articulators and formant frequencies.
Chapter 10, ''Acoustic Characteristics of Speech Sounds'', describes the relation between the acoustic characteristics of a number of sounds and their graphic representation. Vowels are discussed in terms of their acoustic characteristics and F1 to F3 formant according to their quadrilateral classification. The effects of nasal quality, duration and diphthongs on spectrograms and spectra are also discussed. Consonants are also analyzed in terms of acoustic characteristics and consequences for spectrograms and spectra. The discussion is organized around classes of manner of articulation, from approximants to plosives. The chapter ends with discussion of the debate on how context-dependent the acoustic properties of a specific speech sounds might or might not be.
Chapter 11, ''Syllables and Suprasegmentals'', begins with the claim that the principal suprasegmental features are ''stress'', ''length'', ''tone'', and ''intonation''. Considering ''length'' a suprasegmental feature is highly questionable, as it is an acoustic attribute of other suprasegmental features (stress for instance) rather than a feature per se. Suprasegmental features are, as the word indicates, ''above the segment''; that is to say that they are not permanently associated with specific segments. Yet the majority of the examples given are segmental: contrastive length, geminates, intrinsic duration, and number of segments in the syllable. The only factor that might be considered as suprasegmental is ''phrase-final lengthening''. However, ''phrase-final'' has to do with rhythm, of which length is a correlate. (''Rhythm' is understood here as phonetic events (such as F0 valleys and peaks, intensity rises and falls, non-intrinsic segmental length variation, absence/presence of pauses and length variation of pauses) across segments such as phrases and clauses. This is what Cutler (1984:82) calls ''accent'' and Fox (2000:115) refers to as ''accentuation''.) In any case, if the authors wanted to take the unusual stance of considering ''length'' a prosodic feature per se, they ought to have made a case for it.
The section on syllables leads only to the conclusion that there is no comprehensive phonetic definition of the word. In the section on stress, the authors use the ''stress-timed'', ''syllable-timed'', and ''mora-timed'' classification although they acknowledge the lack of empirical evidence to support the categorization. A brief description of tone and intonation is offered in the last section.
Chapter 12, ''Physiology and Psychophysics of Hearing'', begins with a description of the hearing organ (their term, p.226). The account includes physical properties of the different parts of the ear and an explanation of how these parts work together to transform air pressure into neural impulses. Complete with illustration, the description is quite adequate. The second half of the chapter deals with the auditory frequency, loudness and time scales. The account of the different frequency scales is noteworthy as it provides a concise and clear description of what the scales represent, what they are best used for, how they grade differences of frequency and their calculation, as well as how the scales compare and the calculations required to transform one scale into another.
Chapter 13, ''Speech Perception'', presents the major findings on how the listener interprets and decodes an oral message. The section on vowels introduces the notions of equivalence classification, normalization (extrinsic and intrinsic), as well as exemplar-based theories. The study is organized according to manner of articulation, from approximants to plosives. This section describes which acoustic cues are known or believed to contribute to our perception of each class of consonants and to our discrimination of the consonants within each class. Also included are a section on the Motor Theory of speech perception, which leads to an account of categorical perception, and on speech, non-speech and animal perception. The discussion then turns to non-native speech perception where it explores factors such as first and second language phonemic inventory, language experience and age of the learner.
The stated goal -- an introductory course in phonetics with more content than the average introductory textbook -- is reached as this work covers all main aspects of phonetics that beginners might come across. Not all subjects are treated with equal quality, though, and I would say that the strength of this book lies in the technical chapters. Reetz and Jongman have made these highly accessible to readers on all levels. The information provided is largely accurate and adequate (although see the summary of Chapter 11 above for what I consider to be a shortcoming). More than anything, the organization could have been improved upon on these counts:
(1) The subtitle and the table of contents are not harmonized -- transcription is in the articulatory phonetics chapters.
(2) The table of contents does not clearly identify which chapters belong to which area of phonetics. Bearing in mind that the book is meant for beginners, dividing the content into the areas covered by the book and distributing the existing chapters among these parts could have been beneficial.
(3) According to the subtitle and preface, the authors consider transcription one of the ''four areas that comprise phonetics'' (p.xi). While this is disputable, the choice to list transcription first in the subtitle is in my view misleading, giving it exaggerated importance. It might have been more judicious to use the order stated on p.6: ''In this book, we explain how a sound is produced, analyzed, perceived and transcribed.''
(4) Some sections seem misplaced. The discussion of varieties of English and type of English used in the book would for instance be better placed in chapter 1.
I would have expected a book titled ''phonetics'' to offer examples of more languages than this one offers. I do appreciate the authors' comment that ''many of the examples are taken from English, simply because this book is written in English'' but, as they also mention, ''phonetics ... is not geared toward any particular language'' (p.1).
Some sections for instance unjustifiably deal exclusively with English; this is case for chapter 2 in which the description of articulatory phonetics is limited to the vowels and basic consonants of English and the vowel section on phonetic transcription (chapter 3). Still, the book does cover more than English, even if the latter remains the main source of information and of reflection for the authors. Also, it only becomes clear in Chapter 2 that that the variety of English used throughout the book is General American (GA).
Each chapter ends with a series of 5 to 7 questions or exercises, sufficient for the autonomous reader to check whether they have grasped the main points or for the teacher to use as inspiration for a larger variety of questions.
The explanations throughout the book are clear. A number of analogies are used to render the technical subjects more accessible. The writing is also clear although some statements are quirky. For instance, the suggestion to ''stick a finger in your mouth'' to feel the difference of production of the last sound'' in ‘king' and ‘kin' is quite odd. One should assume that if readers can produce the two sounds, they do not need to resort to this. The text is coherent and reference is made of earlier uses of a term. The only instance of lack of coherence is found in the section on ''dorsals'' (section 4.1.3), which does not explain, nor even use, the term ''dorsal''. The reader might appreciate learning about the relation between dorsal and velars and uvulars. The accompanying website is useful and the audio clips are very clear. More clips would be needed for the chapters dealing with articulation.
Bearing in mind the previous comments, I would recommend this book to my students as a reference book, particularly for the more technical parts.
Cutler, A. 1984. ''Stress and accent in language production and understanding''. in Intonation, Accent and Rhythm: Studies in Discourse Phonology, Gibbon, D., and H. Richter, (eds.), pp.77-90. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Fox, A. 2000. Prosodic Features and Prosodic Structure. The Phonology of Suprasegmentals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
Marie Ploquin is a tenured Maître de langue in English at University of
Quebec in Montreal. She has developed English as a non-native language
speech perception courses as well as ESL pronunciation courses. Her
doctoral thesis (2009) examines francophones' and sinophones' phonological
issues in production of ESL prosody. Her research interests include
phonetics, experimental phonetics, prosody, prosodic phonology, forensic
phonetics and the perception of foreignness.