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What is English? And Why Should We Care?

By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.


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Review of  English in the Middle Ages


Reviewer: Simon Meecham-Jones
Book Title: English in the Middle Ages
Book Author: Tim William Machan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Linguistic Field(s): Historical Linguistics
Subject Language(s): English, Old
Book Announcement: 15.2037

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Date: 05 Jul 2004 02:47:33 +0100
From: Simon Meecham-Jones <stmj2@cam.ac.uk>
Subject: English in the Middle Ages

Machan, Tim William (2003) English in the Middle Ages, Oxford
University Press.

Simon Meecham-Jones, affiliated lecturer, English Faculty, University
of Cambridge

OVERVIEW
This book is an interdisciplinary study, designed to illuminate what
Machan describes as 'a kind of grey area between linguistics and
medieval studies' (p. ix). Machan's purpose to recreate some
understanding of historical context as a necessary tool for the
critical interpretation of historical and literary texts -- in Machan's
own words 'I ... have been concerned throughout with detailing the
nuances and complexities of language use in the medieval period, and
with showing how these nuances distinguish the pragmatics of medieval
English from those of the post-medieval period' (p. ix).

SYNOPSIS
Chapter 1 The Ecology of English. The first chapter acts as a twenty-
page introduction to the conceptual dilemmas the book is designed to
address. Machan presents a wide-ranging discussion of the relationship
of language use to the creation and expression of tropes of identity
from the linguistic status of Angle and Saxon settlers to the political
implications of the use of the Finnish language in the nineteenth
century. He emphasises the importance of 'linguistic beliefs' and
mentions the proposition, (in diverse forms) by Fisher, Wallace and
Turville-Petre that the rise of the vernacular in late-medieval England
be linked to the development of an (at least implicitly)
national/nationalistic model of cultural empowerment. Having noted that
these hypotheses 'to a greater or lesser extent, make sociolinguistic
claims' (p. 8), Machan critiques these claims not by disputing their
factual particularities, but by relating them to a broader theoretical
analysis both of the 'development and use of the social meanings and
functions' (p. 9) of medieval English and the methodologies of how such
meanings might be studied. Machan takes over from Haugen and Mufwene
the metaphor of 'the ecology of a language', that is 'the structured,
learned, and analyzable sociolinguistic relationships that obtain
between speakers and the linguistic varieties they use -- whether
channels, registers, dialects, or distinct languages -- in sustaining
particular social and even natural environments'. (p. 10). Machan
argues that this model 'diverges markedly from previous approaches to
late-medieval English', and seeks to make it a useable model by
stressing the applicability of the Uniformitarian Principle. The
proposition of such a model is hedged with caveats concerning the
ideological and methodological difficulties in uncovering the 'social
semiotics' enacted through written or spoken discourse.

Chapter Two The Baron's Wars and Henry's Letters -- language planning
and social meaning. Machan develops the methodology of 'linguistic
ecology' in an extended examination of the unprecedented issue of two
letters in English by Henry III in 1258 as a stratagem in Henry's
contention with Baronial opposition, later dubbed 'the Barons' wars'.
Machan critiques the interpretation by Emerson, Clanchy, Burnley and
others of the choice of English for the letters providing evidence for
emerging 'impulses of linguistic nationalism' (p. 25). Instead he
presents a extensive account of the expression of hostility to
'foreigners' in contemporary sources, using these to construct an
interpretation based on Henry III's 'manipulation of the foreigner
question' (p. 58). From this detailed historical re-contextualization,
more theoretical conclusions about the status of English are then
advanced, again using the (nineteenth century) models of Finnish and
Norwegian as a point of contrast.

Chapter Three Language, Dialect and Nation. Flanked by the more
empiricist studies of chapters two and four, this chapter provides the
theoretical basis for Machan's attempt to answer the question he has
set himself, 'If Middle English was not a group-defining mediation of
nationalism, I ask, what role did it play within the linguistic
repertoire of late-medieval England?' (p. 73). The model developed is
of diglossic (or triglossic) language use, structuring patterns of
social division, evidenced in vignettes and references from an
impressive array of twelfth to fourteenth century primary sources.
Machan notes the presentation of language contact in Norman and Angevin
chronicles as being apparently 'unnatural' (p. 81), as well as socially
situated, and he reminds us of the prevalence of medieval
multilingualism without pursuing how far evidence of pragmatic
multilingualism might undermine the more structured and hierarchical
diglossic model. The chapter concludes with brief sub-chapters on
'Registers, varieties and meanings', 'Standard languages and language
ecology', and 'synchronic variation and diachronic change'. The first
of these sub-chapters concludes that 'nothing in the record of Old or
Middle English ... implies the kind of correlation between regional
variety and social stratification' (p. 94), a conclusion which is
echoed in the representation of the limited scope and influence of
medieval processes of the standardization of English. In the final sub-
chapter, Machan considers the role of Lollardy in 'constructing the
status of English' and comes out firmly in dismissing the importance of
this mode of religious discourse, as opposed to 'more
sociolinguistically significant areas such as business ... or
government' (p. 107).

Chapter Four 'What's a dialect before it's a dialect?' seeks to
demonstrate in practice the virtues of the 'linguistic ecology' model
through detailed considerations of Chaucer's 'Reeve's Tale' and Sir
Gawain and the Green Knight. The analysis of the Reeve's Tale begins
with the assertion that 'however much variation in style and register
he may use, Chaucer consistently writes in what modern linguistics
would call one dialect' (p. 112) In reaching this judgment, Machan
contrasts lexical choice with an absence of significant variation in
phonology, morphology and syntax. The Reeve's Tale is partially
distinguished from this pattern, and its more evident concern with
linguistic variation becomes the starting point for an extended and
original reading which marks out linguistic variation as an index of
social ambition. In a brief interlude 'Disorder, disruption,
discourse', Machan seeks to extend his conclusions, using passages from
The Parlement of Fowles and other Canterbury Tales to advance the idea
of Chaucer as a writer whose linguistic conservatism reflected a
political conservatism -- ' by representing a stable linguistic ecology
as a reflection of a stable social order and vice versa' (p. 136). This
is followed by a reading of 'a courtly sociolect' in Sir Gawain as both
a means of affirming class relationships and, paradoxically, revealing
'their own tenuousness, as well as that of late-medieval courtly
culture' (p. 160).

Chapter Five 'After Middle English'. Machan uses Crowley's 1550 edition
of Piers Plowman as a starting point to draw together evidence for the
Early Modern development of notions of the relationship of language to
nation and cultural self-construction which other critics have sought
to discover, at least implicitly, in the pragmatics of medieval
literary and formal language. Machan redefines his purpose as the
injection of a necessary scepticism, firstly into an understanding of
'medieval England's representation of itself' and secondly into 'the
application of modern sociolinguistic expectations', particularly those
concerned with the discourses of nationalism, 'to the ecology of Middle
English and the late-medieval status of English' (p. 177).

EVALUATION
There can be no doubt that, in its application of sociolinguistic
methodologies to literary and governmental texts, this volume marks out
a significant position in the debate on the status of English in
medieval England. If the idea of integrating the insights of linguistic
research into literary criticism is scarcely new, this book is notable
in presenting such an approach not as a pious aspiration but as a
practical, and probably necessary, programme for researchers in Middle
English literature, as well as Historical linguistics. In his
insistence both on the achievabilty (with reservations) of such models
of interpretation, and its importance in avoiding post-hoc ahistorical
distortion, Machan makes the case elegantly and resolutely for the
importance of drawing on the repertoire of linguistic analyses in the
elucidation of literary texts, while the 'case-studies' from Chaucer
and Gawain and the Green Knight serve as persuasive demonstrations of
the ways in which such analyses can discover levels of nuance
unrevealed by other models of historical and literary examination.

Inevitably, the purpose of this volume attempts an ambitious project
and the confident (if memorable) title risks creating expectations of
the promulgation of a 'general theory of everything' -- an expectation
which Machan pointedly and repeatedly frustrates but which, in its
absence, still makes its presence felt. The sheer scale of the subject
under discussion -- the linguistic beliefs expressed through the use of
English across almost a thousand years of changing social conditions --
mean that there is an occasional tension between Machan's precise and
perceptive presentation of the specific and the forging of more general
theoretical positions. It is a tension manifest in the transition from
the sustained and imaginative account of Henry III's letters in English
into the central chapter 'Language, Dialect and Nation.' which, for all
its energy and intellectual fleetness, must be considered the least
convincing element of this volume -- perhaps because the function it
attempts to execute is impossible. In this chapter Machan argues for a
diglossic/triglossic model, using not Fergusson's original model of two
forms, higher and lower, of the same language, but subsequent
developments of the idea of diglossia, figured on an analogous model of
different languages used in a similar division of function. In the
thirty pages allowed to this chapter, there is insufficient space for
Machan to consider to what extent evidence survives that would support
a sufficiently hierarchical model of language use to justify the use of
the term 'diglossia'. . Whereas it seems unarguable that, in the
immediate Post-Conquest period, English characteristically fulfilled
'lower' variety functions, it seems certain, also, that, in differing
contexts, Anglo-Norman fulfilled 'higher' variety functions, but
perhaps occasionally 'lower' variety functions in relation to Latin.
Machan suggests in passing, but lacks space to pursue, the notion that
the diglossic model seems persuasive in analysing twelfth century
language use in England, but unconvincing in interpreting language use
in the late fourteenth or fifteenth centuries. The complexity of
'linguistic beliefs' about the nature of English, and the changes in
those beliefs through the later Middle Ages, prove resistant to
summation in a single chapter.

A further conceptual difficulty, most pressing in the third chapter,
but present throughout the volume, concerns Machan's treatment of 'the
use of English' as a non-problematic concept. It was not his purpose to
consider the morphological development of the language from the West-
Saxon written standard to Chancery English, but the failure to
determine what should be considered 'English' merely sidesteps the
importance of defining the boundaries of what constitutes a language.
The influence of Code-switching on the lexical (and morphological)
development of the language is wholly absent from this volume.
Curiously, and presumably for reasons of space, Machan chooses not to
make the expected connections between his study of 'medieval contextual
practice' (p. 19) and the growing academic debate on medieval
multilingualism, even though the issues raised by multilingualism in
medieval England are clearly crucial in establishing a 'linguistic
ecology' of medieval English. To give an example, Rothwell's accounts
of the limited geographical currency of Anglo-Norman are cited in a
footnote but the implications of his conclusions for the diglossic
model proposed (could it have been a South-Eastern diglossia only?) are
not pursued.

Similarly, no linguistic ecology of medieval English is achievable
without considering the effects, whether great or insignificant, of
language contact between Middle English and the 'native' Celtic
languages -- Welsh, Irish and Cornish. Machan contentiously (or
inadvertently) includes Wales, Scotland and Ireland within his
conception of 'late-medieval England' (p. 73) but then disregards the
importance of these non-English languages in influencing the status of
English, even though such issues of language must have been acute, not
least in English colonized settlements in Wales and Ireland, perhaps
importing a new diglossic model in which English assumed 'higher'
variety functions.

In a book which tackles such a complex set of dilemmas and
developments, it is inevitable that most readers will find conclusions
to dispute and, less often, questions of substance insufficiently
explored. It is unlikely, for example, that every scholar of Lollardy
will assent to Machan's conclusion that 'The Lollard controversies, in
fact, had no impact on the general fifteenth-century increase in
vernacular manuscript production or incipient valuation of English
literature (p. 107). Similarly, Machan's assertion that Chaucer's
poetry articulates the poet's longing for a stable linguistic ecology
seems incomplete and lacking secure foundations in the absence of any
discussion of The House of Fame, a poem which might be said to be
explicitly engaged with the nature and consequences of linguistic
ecology. Such reservations should, perhaps, be read as evidence of the
importance of this volume in focusing attention on the many
sociolinguistic difficulties which require sustained academic
consideration, and which impede our reading of Middle English texts. In
the wealth of primary and secondary sources analysed, in the detailed
and subtle interpretation of canonical literary texts and, primarily,
in its insistence on the importance of attempting to understand the
'linguistic ecology' of Medieval English, Machan's volume offers an
invaluable resource, which will surely provide the starting point for
many new directions in academic research -- and, with luck, become the
first volume in a sequence of such studies.
 
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Simon Meecham-Jones. MA. (Oxon), Ph.D (University of Wales, Aberystwyth). Since 2000, affilated lecturer, English Faculty, University of Cambridge. Lecturer, tutor, examiner, assessor for (variously) courses in 'Varieties of English', 'History of the English Language', 'Language for Literature', 'Medieval Latin Literature'. Visiting lecturer Royal Holloway (University of London) & Middlesex University. Publications and Research Interests in Chaucer, Gower, Medieval Latin Lyric poetry, Language and Cultural Contact in Medieval Britain. Co-editor (with Dr. Ruth Kennedy) 'Writing the Reign of Henry II', publication date January 2005 (Palgrave New York).

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