Featured Linguist!

Jost Gippert: Our Featured Linguist!

"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

Donate Now | Visit the Fund Drive Homepage

Amount Raised:


Still Needed:


Can anyone overtake Syntax in the Subfield Challenge ?

Grad School Challenge Leader: University of Washington

Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


What is English? And Why Should We Care?

By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

New from Cambridge University Press!


Medical Writing in Early Modern English

Edited by Irma Taavitsainen and Paivi Pahta

This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.

Email this page
E-mail this page

Review of  Building Natural Language Generation Systems

Reviewer: Constantin Orasan
Book Title: Building Natural Language Generation Systems
Book Author: Robert Dale Ehud Reiter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Linguistic Field(s): Computational Linguistics
Book Announcement: 12.786

Discuss this Review
Help on Posting

Building natural language generation systems
Ehud Reiter and Robert Dale
Studies in Natural Language Processing
Cambridge University Press, 2000, 248 pages

Reviewed by Constantin Orasan

Computers are very good at dealing with large amounts of data
in a relatively short time. They can store and analyse data
about daily temperature or amount of rain in a region, being
able to produce reports and forecasts. Computers as expert
systems have been widely used for taking decisions on the
basis of their inputs. For example, using a smoker's answers
to a questioner about his/her smoking habits, a program can
suggest ways for giving up smoking. However, in most of the
cases the results of an algorithm are very difficult, if not
impossible, to be properly understood by humans. Therefore, in
order to take full advantage of these results, it is necessary
to display them in a format which is appropriate for the
algorithm and can be easily understood by humans. Such formats
can be histograms for values that change over time (e.g. share
prices), text for weather reports, etc.

This book tackles the problem of building systems which
generate natural language on the basis of some input
information, produced by an algorithm, stored in databases,
etc. Natural language generation (NLG) is a field developed at
the confluence of artificial intelligence with computational
linguistics. Even though the field started in late sixties and
has been investigated by numerous researchers, there are no
books which discuss practical issues in building complete NLG
systems. This book is trying to fill this existing gap by
describing the architecture of a hypothetical NLG system,
WeatherReporter. In addition to this, comparison with well-
known existing systems is made (two of them being the above
mentioned ones for generating weather reports and smoking-
cessation letters).


In chapter one, natural language generation is defined as a
task which "typically starts from a non-linguistic
representation of information as input ... uses knowledge
about language and the application domain to automatically
produce reports, documents, explanations and other kind of
texts". Natural language generation and natural language
understanding are compared and considered two inverse tasks.
This idea made some researchers hope that it is possible to
make systems which can understand and generate language using
common resources. Although, this idea is very appealing, the
authors of this book draw attention to the fact that it is
very difficult to build effective systems which perform both
tasks because the problems to be solved are quite different in
each case. In the second half of the chapter, a short history
of the field is presented and successful systems are
introduced. Most of these systems are used later in the book
for exemplification and comparison.

Natural language generation is a field in which difficult
problems arise. The second chapter of the book discusses some
of these problems. For example, the cost of building an NLG
system has to be considered. As the authors point out, there
are cases when mail merge or human authoring is a cheaper or
more appropriate solution. Moreover, it is emphasised that
there are cases when people are reluctant to use an NLG system
(especially in those cases when errors in text can have
important implications e.g. health related contexts). However,
when an NLG system is built, a corpus to determine the user
requirements has to be assembled. The issues involved in
building this corpus and evaluating NLG systems are also
discussed in the second chapter.

Whereas the first two chapters are rather general
introductions to the natural language generation field,
chapter three presents the main concern of the book: the
building of NLG systems. Given the complexity of this task,
the advantages of a pipeline modular architecture are
discussed. As is pointed out such an architecture is easier to
develop and debug, leading also to reusability of the modules.
The chosen architecture is also compared with other existing
layouts, emphasising its advantages and weaknesses. A positive
aspect of this discussion is the fact that it can be used not
only for building NLG systems, but also for all kinds of
natural language systems.

The generation process is decomposed into three modules:
document planner, microplanner and surface realiser, presented
in chapters 4, 5 and 6, respectively. The second part of
chapter 3, introduces these modules giving an overview of the
architecture of WeatherReporter. Due to the fact that all the
topics discussed here, are reanalysed in the subsequent
chapters in much more detail, I found this part a bit too long
and too detailed. However, this could be useful for readers
who do not have much time, giving them a fairly detailed
overview of the system.

Chapter 4 details the first module of a NLG system: the
document planner. The document planner is responsible for
deciding which information is communicated and determine how
this information should be structured for presentation. Two
submodules are used: content determination and document
structuring. The document planner is the most-application
dependent module relying on knowledge specific to the input
data. The WeatherReporter is used for exemplifying the way of
selecting and representing the information communicated by the
system (referred to in the book as messages). Important
issues, like granularity and the level of abstraction of the
messages, are discussed. The large number of examples makes
the chapters easy to understand, although as I point out
later, for some readers, it would have been helpful to explain
the formalisms used for these examples.

The document planner produces a general structure of the
document. As the authors argue in chapter 5, this structure is
too general to produce text directly from it. As a result,
they introduce an intermediate module, microplanning, which
involves lexicalisation, aggregation and generation of
referring expressions. Some researchers do not include a
microplanner in their systems, but in this book it is argued
that it is better to include it given that the document
planner relies on domain knowledge and the surface realiser on
linguistic knowledge; therefore it is necessary to include a
module which pays attention to interactions between domain and
linguistic knowledge.

The first task of the microplanner is to choose the words and
syntactic structures which communicate the information in a
document plan. Several ways for choosing the words and
discourse relations are discussed using a large number of
examples. Once the lexicalisation decides how different
concepts are expressed in words and syntactic structures, the
aggregation module improves the readability of the generated
text by combining similar sentences. Several aggregation rules
are specified. Another way to improve the readability of the
text is by using referring expressions. A referring expression
is a way of referring to a previously introduced entity,
without describing the entity again. Pronouns and noun phrases
are the most common ways of referring to an already introduced
entity. Generation of such expressions raises special problems
like: when and how a pronoun should be used for referring to
an entity, or when a noun phrase is used as a referring
expression, should it be realised fully or in a reduced form?
Correct generation of referring expressions is very important
for the overall readability of a text. On the one hand, if
there are ambiguities, the text will not be easily understood.
On the other hand, a text which always specifies full NPs will
be too repetitive.

In order to show how it is possible to generate referring
expressions, the authors use linguistic theories for
explaining the phenomenon. I found it surprising that the
authors do not mention at all the constraints introduced by
the governing and binding theory, and centering theory between
an initial and subsequent reference, and how they can be used
to ensure the grammatical correctness and discourse coherence
of the generated text.

The sixth chapter describes the process of mapping abstract
text specifications into a surface text by the surface
realiser. It consists of two processes: structure and
linguistic realiser. The first one is in charge of the layout
of the document, mapping the internal representation into
coding specific to the medium the generated text is displayed
in (e.g. paragraphs, the way the headings are displayed,
etc.). The second process produces the actual text of the
document and relies on linguistic knowledge. Given the
complexity of this task the authors opt to use an existing
realiser, rather than building one from the scratch. Three
possible choices are presented: KPML based on systemic
functional grammar, SURGE based on functional unification
grammar and RealPro based on meaning-text theory, a form of
dependency grammar. The implications of choosing one realiser
instead of another are discussed. Whereas the previous three
chapters were very practical, the sixth one is rather
theoretical, explaining the theories behind these systems.

The final chapter of the book focuses on generating documents
rather than simple texts, emphasising the general tendency in
natural language processing to process and produce multimedia
documents. As the authors point out, the main difference
between texts and documents is the fact that the latter
include not only text, but also graphics, hyperlinks, sound,
etc. Different issues involved in the generation of documents
are discussed. This chapter is general, without going into too
much detail about ways of generating such material. However,
this is normal given the fact that almost each of these topics
can be the subject of a book.


The book is a pleasant and relatively easy reading, especially
because of the large number of examples. However, a weak point
of the book is the authors' assumption about the reader's
knowledge. The formalisms used for examples are used without
being explained. It is true that the attribute-value matrix is
a well-known format for representation of data, but still a
short explanation would have been helpful. Not so familiar and
straightforward is the pseudocode used throughout the book,
and especially the one used to define the message types (p.
61-70). Written in a C++-like style, it could confuse some
readers unfamiliar with object-oriented programming. A
solution could be to explain uncommon notions at the end of
the book in an appendix. In this way the flow of reading is
not interrupted, and a reader, who is unfamiliar with any of
these concepts, could clarify them. The authors also compare
simple lexicalisation with localisation class in Java, but for
a reader unfamiliar with Java this is not very helpful.

A positive point that is worth noting is the way the authors
develop different arguments. They do not try to persuade the
reader that their choice is the correct one. Instead, they
present a good balance of pro and contra arguments for their
choice. In most of the cases their choice is based on
pragmatic considerations (as it should be given that the book
addresses practical issues in building NLG systems).

Although multilingual natural language generation is not the
topic of this book, several times the authors point out how
the described techniques can be used for generation of
multilingual text.

I recommend this book to all the people involved in building
natural generation systems and other kinds of systems for
processing language. Although, the book does not concentrate
on describing algorithms for generation, the extensive further
reading section at the end of each chapter can be used as a
starting point for getting information about useful

Constantin Orasan in doing a PhD in Automatic Summarisation at
University of Wolverhampton, U.K. In addition to automatic
summarisation, his other current research interests are
anaphora resolution, corpus building and analysing, and
machine learning techniques for natural language.


Format: Hardback
ISBN: 0521620368
ISBN-13: N/A
Pages: 270
Prices: U.S. $ 75.00
U.K. £ 55.00