"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
AUTHOR: Allen, James P. TITLE: Middle Egyptian SUBTITLE: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs PUBLISHER: Cambridge University Press YEAR: 2010
Grover Hudson, Department of Linguistics and Languages, Michigan State University
Middle, or Classical, Egyptian is the language of fully developed Egyptian hieroglyphic writing from about 4000 BP, and according to Allen (p. 1) a spoken language for only the first five hundred of these years, after which in the conservative 'diglossic' way of writing familiar in modern Arabic, it continued as the language of hieroglyphic writing, until about 2000 years ago as hieroglyphic was replaced by its Demotic, cursive, adaptation, and then by Coptic, written in Greek letters and the direct descendant of ancient spoken Egyptian. Coptic itself has not been spoken for now some hundreds of years.
The publisher's Linguist List announcement of this book said that it 'introduces the reader to the writing system of ancient Egypt and the language of hieroglyphic texts ... . The combination of grammar lessons and cultural essays allows users to not only read hieroglyphic texts but also to understand them, providing readers with the foundation to understand texts on monuments and to read great works of ancient Egyptian literature in the original text'. This second edition 'contains revised exercises and essays, providing an up-to-date account of current research and discoveries. New illustrations enhance discussions and examples. These additions combine with the previous edition to create a complete grammatical description of the classical language of ancient Egypt for specialists in linguistics and other fields.'
The above announcement must surely have been of interest to readers of Linguist List for its promise that the book might allow users not only to read texts in Egyptian, but to understand them! The book is perhaps the best available, and perhaps most popular, English-language textbook in use for Middle Egyptian, if by the small and -- one supposes -- decreasing number of students of this classical language.
This second edition differs little in substance from the first (2000) edition, but for students perhaps significantly by the addition in each chapter of illustrations, almost completely absent before. These photos and drawings inserted at the essays of each chapter account for most of the 13 pages of added length. Another change from the first edition is the insertion after every sentence-length utterance, in parentheses, of its published source as a standard abbreviation of the Egyptological literature. In the first edition, these references appeared as an appendix. (It seems -- and seems reasonable -- that even experts like Allen are reluctant to create for publication new sentences of Middle Egyptian.) The publisher says there are additions to the exercises, but these are few, and there are rarely minor changes in wordings of the text, for example (p. 7): 'the letters of our alphabet' > 'English letters', (p. 37): 'In a few masculine nouns the last consonant is t' > 'A few masculine nouns have t as their last consonant is' (sic), (p. 252): 'The pseudoverbal construction is an involuntary future' > 'The pseudoverbal construction is basically an involuntary future'. Some new publications are added in the list of references. Omitting the words 'if you have access to the internet' and acknowledging what is certainly in the ten years since the first edition a significant improvement in resources for language learning, Allen has added in the last-chapter section on 'where to go from here' many new internet resources for learning Egyptian.
The 26 chapters are from 10-28 pp. in length. The first three introduce hieroglyphic writing and its relation to the sound system of Egyptian: despite their picture-like nature, the glyphs mostly represent the 25 consonant phonemes of the language, though not in anything like a one-to-one way. Chapters 4-25 consist invariably of three parts, the first two appropriate to the two goals of the book's title: introducing the language and introducing the culture. First is presentation and exemplification of several points of grammar, followed by a 3-4 pp. essay concerning some aspect of ancient Egyptian history, society, religion, and literature, complemented by the newly provided illustrations probably appreciated by students, a photograph or tracing of a hieroglyphic text relevant to each essay. Some sample titles of the essays are 'Ancient Egyptian Society', 'Egyptian Chronology', 'The Memphite Theology', and 'Non-literary Texts'. Ending each chapter is a single exercise typically consisting of some 25-35 phrases and/or sentences for translation.
Unlike the typical lesson-chapters of most language textbooks, these have neither the usual vocabulary list anticipating words appearing anew in the translation exercise, nor, with few exceptions (e.g. the pronoun paradigm on p. 52) grammar paradigms. There are numerous 'tables', really just lists of examples. Chapter 26 is an overview, with an essay concerning the 'Theory' of Middle Egyptian grammar, which it seems is largely concerned with the contrast of the morpho-syntactic theories of Gardiner 1927 and Polotsky 1944.
Appendixed are three dictionaries, in which signs are respectively accessed according to what they depict, their general shape, and the sound of the word they represent. A now classical adaptation from Gardiner 1927 is a 'Sign List' of some 675 glyphs 'most often found in Middle Egyptian texts, arranged into 27 groups on the basis of what they depict' (p. 425): 'human beings, male', 'human beings, female', 'anthropomorphic gods', 'birds', etc. This list gives the function of each sign as phonogram (having phonetic value), determinative (indicator of 'the general idea of a word') (p. 30), or ideogram (iconic interpretation, e.g. a hand meaning 'hand', but often interpreted as a rebus, phonologically, e.g. an English example: a picture of a bee read [bi] and meaning 'be'); a pronunciation in phonetic writing (often not for determinatives); and an English translation equivalent. The 27th group is the residue of 32 'Unclassified' signs.
Next, most the signs of the 27 groups are reassembled into four according to their shape: 'small', 'horizontal', 'vertical', and 'large signs and combinations'. Third, and titled 'Dictionary', is a list of some 560 phonetically-written words in Egyptian 'alphabetic' order. Also appended are answers to the exercises, followed by a thorough, 15-page, index.
It is difficult and probably unwise to try to evaluate this book according to its goal as a language coursebook/textbook, because the preferences and learning styles of language learners differ so greatly. Certainly Cambridge's claim is questionable that the book provides 'a complete grammatical description of the classical language of ancient Egypt for specialists in linguistics'. For this, a linguist will probably prefer Loprieno (1999). One seeking first just to understand the writing system will perhaps prefer to start with Davies (1987), with its extensive and attractive exemplification.
Certainly a textbook of Egyptian cannot be judged on the usual standard for modern language textbooks: based on a structured syllabus, communicative/functional basis of lessons, and stimulating contextualization of practice. Egyptian, which, even as Coptic hasn't been spoken for hundreds of years, is not a language for communication in the usual two-way sense, as Allen recognizes in the preface (p. ix): 'We learn Egyptian ... not as a means of communication but as a tool for reading ... texts.' But this is still a sort of communication: ancient Egyptians communicating to the student through the texts, which, however and as Allen says (p. ix), 'are full of terms and concepts that have no direct counterpart in the modern world'. Fortunately the texts are a finite set, perhaps almost all of which have already been translated and published. The vocabulary is finite, too; we read (p. 31) that there are some 17,000 known Egyptian words, of which fewer than five hundred are ideograms. At the end of chapter 26, Allen says (p. 423) 'No matter how much grammar you study, reading texts is ultimately the best way to learn Egyptian'; indeed, this seems ultimately the only way.
The two greatest difficulties with Egyptian, it seems clear, are first the lack of knowledge of vowels, and second, despite Middle Egyptian's being a 'written standard', the considerable variation which must characterize a body of language set down over some two thousand years. There was at least the continuing tendency for phonograms to be used of contemporary as well as etymological pronunciations, but both problems are particularly troublesome when it comes to verbal morphology, thus (p. 299): 'We have now met all six forms of the verb whose stem and suffix consonants are sdm.f: perfective, imperfective, subjunctive, prospective, prospective passive, and passive', which 'often look alike in many classes'.
As preparation for students' independent reading of texts, Allen's textbook has proved its excellence by having become probably that most commonly assigned in US universities, in which circumstance I know of students who love the book and others who don't love it so much. Certainly it is not a book -- nor Egyptian a subject -- for the typical undergraduate -- or graduate. Perhaps three sorts of students are usually found: (i) Egyptology majors, a small but dedicated group; (ii) those interested in Egyptian as auxiliary to another major: maybe theology, philosophy, linguistics, and Semitic studies (Egyptian has been often thought, if probably wrongly, closely related within Afro-Asiatic to Semitic); and (iii), those few and ever-challenging students, met occasionally in linguistics programs, who have an independent curiosity about (and usually an aptitude for learning) languages, for what they can learn about other ways of encoding thought if not other ways of thinking. The first and most of the second group may be thought to share the goal of the textbook, to acquire independent reading ability. In the second group most linguistics majors will have different goals, but perhaps may be drawn by Allen's book into the Egyptological enterprise.
Interestingly revealing of the perspective of a student perhaps of the third group, on one of the Egyptian study-group websites a learner reported it 'weird to pick up a book (Allen's) that is supposed to teach me how to read the glyphs and find that it directs me to reading and writing the transliterations of the glyphs. Putting an emphasis on the transliterations inserts a 3rd level of writing between the glyphs and our mental processes that removes us from reading the sacred writings.'
Even reading the language may be thought, indeed, a curious or even arcane goal, as almost all hieroglyphic writings have now been translated and retranslated, though the considerable variability which characterizes hieroglyphic Egyptian writing means that there is a continuing interest in new translations, and thus interesting work for new students of the language.
Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: an introduction to the language and culture of hieroglyphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davies, W. V. (1987). Reading the past: Egyptian hieroglyphs. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press and British Museum.
Gardiner, A. H. (1927). Egyptian grammar, being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs. Oxford: Oxford University Press (3rd ed., 1957).
Loprieno, Antonio. (1995). Ancient Egyptian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Polotsky. H. J. (1944). Étude de syntaxe copte. Cairo: Société d'archéologie copte.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
Grover Hudson taught phonology, historical linguistics, and Ethiopian
linguistics including Amharic language at Michigan State University. He is
author of a comparative dictionary of Highland East Cushitic languages, an
introductory linguistics textbook, with Anbessa Teferra a recent book on
Amharic, and articles on phonology, and Ethiopian descriptive and